Hypothyroidism and stunting around the Merapi Volcano

https://doi.org/10.22146/jcoemph.61025

Pramudji Hastuti(1*), Ahmad Hamim Sadewa(2), Prasetyastuti -(3), Sunarti -(4), Arta Farmawati(5), Ngadikun -(6), Dianandha Septiana Rubi(7), Abrory Agus Cahya Pramana(8)

(1) Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(3) Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(4) Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(5) Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(6) 
(7) Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(8) Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Cangkringan is a mountainous area with the possibility of low iodine sources in the soil. Additionally, Cangkringan area is the area nearest to where eruptions of Merapi mountain have occurred, which further could reduce iodine levels in the soil. This study examined the incidence of hypothyroidism due to iodine deficiency and potential links to stunting events on the slopes of Merapi mountain. By using ELISA methods, a total of 97 mothers were tested to detect the triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels to determine the frequency of hypothyroidism, while 97 children were assessed to check the stunting rates by measuring height compared to age. We found hypothyroidism was 3 (3.1%) out of 97 mothers examined and 30 (30.9%) out of 97 children examined were stunted (18.5% short stature and 12.4% very short stature). There was a significant difference between the mothers’ TSH levels among very short stature and normal stature. We concluded that hypothyroidism in mothers is correlated with stunting children in Cangkringan, Sleman sub-district. Further research is needed to determine the frequency of hypothyroidism and stunting in other slopes of Merapi mountain, where the low-iodine soil composition is potentially related to hypothyroidism and stunting incidence. Thus, further treatment is needed by local health staff and governments to address the negative effects of hypothyroidism and stunting.

Keywords


hypothyroidism; iodine; stunting; TSH levels; triiodothyronine

Full Text:

PDF


References

  1. Holland K. Everything you need to know about hypothyroidism [Internet]. Healthline; 2017 [updated 2017 April 3; cited 2020 Aug 29]. Available from: https://www.healthline.com/health/hypothyroidism/symptoms-treatments-more.
  2. Eastman CJ & Zimmermann MB. The iodine deficiency disorders [Internet]. Chicago; 2017 [updated 2017 April 4; cited 2020 Aug 30]. Available from: https://www.thyroidmanager.org/.
  3. Gaitan E and Dunn JT. Epidemiology of iodine deficiendy. Trend Endocrinol Metab. 1992; (5): 170-5.
  4. Wibawa SW. Hipotiroid, dari Penyebab, Gejala hingga Pengobatannya [Internet]. Kompas.com; 2019 [cited 2021 Feb 26]. Available from: https://sains.kompas.com/read/2019/08/29/193600623/hipotiroid-dari-penyebab-gejala-hingga-pengobatannya
  5. Chandra A. Prevalensi stunting in Epidemiologi stunting. 2020; 1: 10-26. Semarang: Universitas Diponegoro.
  6. Setiaputri KA. Penilaian status gizi anak, cara mengukur hingga membaca hasilnya [Internet]. Jakarta: Hello Health Group Pte; 2020 [updated 2020 Oct 28; cited 2020 Aug 29]. Available from: https://hellosehat.com/parenting/nutrisi-anak/penilaian-status-gizi-anak/#gref.
  7. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Hypothyroidism also called; Underactive thyroid [Internet]. United Stated: US Department of Health and Human Services National Institute of Health; 2019 [updated 2019 Nov 21; cited 2020 Aug 30]. Available from: https://medlineplus.gov/hypothyroidism.html.
  8. Talaei A, Rafee N, Rafei F and A Chehrei. TSH cut-off point based on depression in hypothyroid patients. BMC Psychiatry. 2017; 17: 1-5.
  9. IDAI. Kurva pertumbuhan WHO [Internet]. IDAI; 2020 [cited 2020 Aug 30]. Available from: https://.idai.or.id/professional-resources/kurva-pertumbuhan-who
  10. Viva. Angka Stunting di Indonesia Diharapkan Bisa Turun 14 Persen [Internet]. Jakarta: Suara Merdeka; 2020 [updated 2020 Aug 5; cited 2020 Aug 31]. Available from: https://www.suaramerdeka.com/news/nasional/237148-angka-stunting-di-indonesia-diharapkan-bisa-turun-14-persen.
  11. Soewondo P and Cahyanur R. Penatalaksanaan penyakit-penyakit tiroid bagi dokter. Jakarta: Interna publishing, Hipotiroidisme dan gangguan akibat kekurangan iodium. 2018, 14-21.
  12. Lowth M. Childhood and Congenital Hypothyroidism [Internet]. United Kingdom: Patient; 2014 [updated 2014 April 17; cited 2020 Aug 25]. Available from: https://patient.info/doctor/childhood-and-congenital-hypothyroidism.
  13. National Institute of Diabtes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Neonatal hypothyroidism [Internet]. United States: US Department of Health and Human Services National Institute of Health; 2020 [updated 2020 Oct 8; cited 2020 Oct 30]. Available from: https://medlineplus.gov/hypothyroidism.html.
  14. Cretinism (congenital hypothyroidism) [Internet]. [cited 2020 Aug 20]. Available from: https://congenitalhypothyroidism.weebly.com/prevalence.html.
  15. RS Awal Bros A. Yani. Kenali stunting dan cara pencegahannya [Internet]. Pekanbaru: RS Awal Bros. 2019 [cited 2020 Aug 31]. Available from: http://awalbros.com/anak/kenali-stunting-dan-cara-pencegahannya/#.
  16. Nareza M. Pahami penyebab stunting dan dampaknya pada kehidupan anak [Internet]. Jakarta: Alodokter; 2020 [updated 2020 Jan 30; cited 2020 Aug 31]. Available from: https://www.alodokter.com/bayi-lahir-stunting-faktor-penyebab-dan-risiko.
  17. Hidayati F. Memahami stunting pada anak [Internet]. Jakarta: Alodokter; 2019 [updated 2019 April 10; cited 2020 Aug 30]. Available from: https://www.alodokter.com/memahami-stunting-pada-anak.
  18. Humas Sardjito. Kenali penyebab stunting anak [Internet]. Yogyakarta: RSUP Dr. Sardjito; 2019 [updated 2019 July 22; cited 2020 Aug 30]. Available from: https://sardjito.co.id/2019/07/22/kenali-penyebab-stunting-anak/.
  19. Kementerian Keuangan Republik Indonesia. Menko PMK: Target angka stunting di bawah 680 ribu per tahun [Internet]. Jakarta: Kementerian Keuangan Republik Indonesia; 2020 [updated 2020 Sept 14; cited 2020 Aug 29]. Available from: https://www.kemenkeu.go.id/publikasi/berita/menko-pmk-target-angka-stunting-di-bawah-680-ribu-per-tahun/.
  20. McIntosh J. What is hypothyroidism? [Internet]. United Kingdom: Heatlhline Media UK Ltd; 2018 [updated 2018 Jan 2; cited 2020 Aug 20]. Available from: https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/163729#1.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jcoemph.61025

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 770 | views : 1027

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Community Empowerment for Health

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.