Phytochemical Constituents of Cnestis ferruginea and Its Toxicity in Fish

Teslim Asefa Ojetayo(1), Abiola Fadilat Durojaiye(2*), Nathanel Akinsafe Bamidele(3), Odunayo Rukayat Ibitunde(4), Oluwaseun Abigail Sofowote(5)

(1) Department of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria
(2) Department of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria
(3) Institute of Food Security, Environmental Resources and Agricultural Research, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria
(4) Department of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria
(5) Department of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria
(*) Corresponding Author


The study explored the potentials of C. ferruginea as a nutritional supplement while also testing its possible toxicity to fish. Standard proximate and mineral analysis procedures were used to estimate nutritional composition, while Lorke's and Tainter and Miller's methods were used to determine LD50 of C. ferruginea. Results were presented as means±SD, and analysis of variance was used to test for differences in means. The values obtained for each parameter measured were significantly different (p<0.05) across all the samples. The analyzed ash contents for the crude powder, aqueous, ethanolic extracts were 1.47±0.02, 1.06±0.01, and 0.85±0.01,respectively. A low protein concentration of less than 5% was recorded across the samples. A decreasing trend (75.05±0.25 < 52.09±0.19 < 31.21±0.61) was observed in the carbohydrate values in the crude powder, aqueous and ethanolic extracts, respectively. The mineral composition of C. ferruginea across the samples was significantly different (p<0.05). The crude powder sample had the highest values recorded for all the minerals analyzed, followed by the aqueous and then ethanolic extract except for iron and copper, where ethanolic extract had higher values than aqueous extract. The values obtained for alkaloids, flavonoids, saponin, tannin, phenolic compounds, and oxalates showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in the crude powder sample, aqueous extract, and ethanolic extract, respectively. However, the ethanolic extract had higher values than the aqueous extract for glycosides, terpenoids, and steroids. Of the phytochemical components analyzed, oxalate had the highest value (16.11±0.01) followed by saponin (12.31±0.19), alkaloids (8.12±0.00), and tannin (6.43±0.17). The lowest values were recorded in steroids (0.11±0.00), terpenoids (0.29±0.01), and glycosides (0.34±0.01). LD50 was calculated to be 223.61 mg/kg for aqueous extract of C. ferruginea and 170.29 mg/kg for ethanolic extract (Lorke's method), while 124.82 mg/kg was obtained for aqueous extract and 128.63 mg/kg for ethanolic extract of C. ferruginea (Miller and Tainter method). The behavioural responses observed include weakness, hanging within the water column, and slow response to feeding. Mortality was recorded in some doses. The results indicate that C. ferruginea is a potential source of energy and minerals when incorporated into the fish diet. Its phytochemical constituent is wealthy and could be used in fish health management. However, the plant is toxic and cautiously applied with an LD50 value lower than 2.500 mg/kg.


Aquaculture; fish health; LD50; phytochemical; toxicity

Full Text:



Achi, N.K., C. Onyeabo, C.A. Ekeleme-Egediwe and J.C.Onyeanula. 2017. Phytochemical, proximate analysis, vitamin and mineral composition of aqueous extract of Ficus capensis leaves in South-Eastern Nigeria. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 7 (3): 117-122.

Adisa, R.A., M.I. Choudhary, E.O. Adewoye & O.O. Olorunsogo. 2010. Hypoglycaemic and Biochemical Properties of Cnestis ferruginea. Afr. J. Trad. C.A.M. 7 (3): 185-194.

Adnan, M., J. Hussain, T.M. Shah, Z.K. Shinwari, F. Ullah, A. Bahader, N. Khan, A.L. Khan, & T. Watanabe. 2010. Proximate and nutrient composition of medicinal plants of humid and sub-humid regions in North-west Pakistan. Journal of Medical Plants Research. 4 (4): 339-345.

Akharaiyi, F.C., B. Bolatito & F.C. Adetuyi. 2012. Antibacterial, phytochemical, and antioxidant properties of Cnestis ferruginea D.C. (Connaraceae) extracts. Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences. 2 (2) 592-609.

AOAC. 2000. Official Method of Analysis. 17th ed. The Association of Official Analytical Chemists International, Gaithersburg, MD, U.S.A.

Caruso, D., A.M. Lusiastuti, T. Taukhid, J. Slembrouck, O. Komarudin & M. Legendre. 2013. Traditional pharmacopoeia in small-scale freshwater fish farms in West Java, Indonesia: an ethnoveterinary approach. Aquaculture. 416-417: 334-345.

Deciga-campos, M., I. Rivero-couz, M. Arriaga-albam, G. Castaneda-corral, G.E. Angeles-lopez, A. Navarrete & R. Mata. 2007. Acute toxicity and mutagenic activity of Mexican plants used in traditional medicine. J. Ethnopharmacol 110: 334-342.

Durojaiye, A.F & S.O. Sule. 2018. A Preliminary Assessment of Aquamedicines Used at Eriwe Fish Farm Community in Ogun State. Ogueji, E.O. (Ed). 33rd Annual Conference of Fisheries Society of Nigeria (FISON) at Lagos State Polytechnic, Ikorodu, Lagos, 29th October-2nd November, 2018. 52-56 pp.

Sule, S.O., A.F. Durojaiye & T.A. Ojetayo. 2019. Health Management Practices Adopted in Fish Production at Eriwe Fish Farming Community, Ogun State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Scientific Research.

Enemor, E.C., T.N. Akagha, K.G. Ngwoke, T.H. Gugu, A.N. Oli, C.O. Eze, B.C. Ugwu, P.C. Ejikeugwu & M.C. Ugwu. 2015. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of ethanolic stem extracts of Cnestis ferruginea on multidrug-resistant bacteria isolated from raw retail meat sold in Awka, Nigeria). Pharm. Sci. & Res. 7 (11): 1044-1049.

Essiet, U. & U.I. Akpan. 2013. Comparative phytochemical and physicochemical properties of Aspilia africana (Pers) and Tithonia diversifolia petals as a scientific backing to their tradomedicinal potentials. International Journal of Modern Biology and Medicine. 3 (2): 88-100.

Francis, G., H.P.S. Makkar & K. Becker. 2001. Anti-nutritional factors present in plant-derived alternate fish feed ingredients and their effects in fish. Aquaculture. 199: 197-227.

Franklin, L.U., G.D. Cunnington & D. Young. 2001. Terpenes-based pesticide treatments for killing terrestrial arthropoda including among others, lice, lice eggs, mites and ants

Funsho, O.O., R. Yinusa, A.A. Olajire & O.O. Mathew. 2013. Haematological and some biochemical profiles in male rats treated with Cnestis ferruginea (de Candolle) root extract and its pure fractions. African journal of pharmacy and pharmacology. 7 (20): 1231-1235

Gharibzahedi, S.M.T & S.M. Jafari. 2017. The importance of minerals in human nutrition: Bioavailability, food fortification, processing effects and Nanoencapsulation. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 62: 119-132.

Haruna, S.S., O. Ahmed & J.O. Titilayo. 2015. Nutritional and anti-nutritional composition of Lantana camara leaf. Journal of Investigational Biochemistry. 4 58-60.

Ifemeje, J.C., C. Egbuna, J.O. Eziokwudiaso & F.C. Ezebuo. 2014. Determination of the anti-nutrient composition of Ocimum gratissimum, Corchorus olitorius, Murraya koenigii Spreng and Cucurbita maxima. International Journal of Innovation and Scientific Research. 3 (2): 127-133.

Igidi, O.J & C.E. Edene. 2014. Proximate and phytochemical compositions of Napoleona vogelii hook fruit. The International Journal of Engineering and Science. 3 (6): 46-5.

Ipek, S.Ö & Y. Faruk. 2020. Phytonutrients in Food. Elsevier Woodhead Publishing. 255 pp.

Iranloye, B., K. Oyeusi & A. Alada. 2010. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Phyllanthus amarus Leaves on Implantation and Pregnancy in Rats. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Science. 25 (1): 63-66.

Irvin, F.R. 1961. Woody plants of Ghana. Oxford University Press. 146-147 pp.

Jayapriya, G. & F.G. Shoba. 2014. Screening for the phytochemical activity of Urechites lutea plant. Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research. 4 (6): 20-24.

Jéquier, E & F. Constant. 2010. Water as an essential nutrient: The physiological basis of hydration. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 64 (2): 115-123.

Lorke, D. 1983. A new approach to practical acute toxicity testing. Archives of Toxicology. 54: 275-287.

Miller, L.C & M.L. Tainter. 1944. Estimation of ED50 and its error by means of log-probit graph paper. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. 57 (2): 261-264.

Mohd-fuat, A.R., E.A. Kofi & E.G. Allan. 2007. Mutagenic and cytotoxic properties of three herbal plants from Southeast Asia. Tropical Biomedicine. 24 (2): 49-59.

Narzary, H & S. Basumatary. 2019. Amino acid profiles and anti-nutritional contents of traditionally consumed six wild vegetables. Current Chemistry Letters. 8 (3):137–144.

Okoye, T.C., P. Uzor, C.A. Onyeto & E.K. Okereke. 2014. Safe African medicinal plants for clinical studies. In: Toxicological survey of African medicinal plants. Elsevier, U.S.A. 742 pp.

Olugbade, T.A., J.O. Oluwadiya & W.A. Yisak. 1982. Chemical constituents of Cnestis ferruginea petroleum ether fraction. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 6 (3): 365-370.

Rajesh, K.D., S. Vasantha, N.V. Rajesh & A. Panneerselvam. 2014. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis in four pteridophytes. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research. 27 (2): 408-412.

Saxena, M., J. Saxena, R. Nema, D. Singh & A. Gupta. 2013. Phytochemistry of medicinal plants. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry Center for Microbiology and Bio-Technology Research and Training, Bhopal, India. 8192 (1): 168-182

Sczkowski, C.P., M. Kalinowska & Z. Wojciechowski. 1998. The 3-Oglucosylation of steroidal saponins and alkaloids in eggplant (Solanum melongena); evidence for two separate glycosyl transferences. Phytochemistry. 48: 1151-1159.

Spinelli, J. 1979. Influence of feed in finfish quality. In: Finfish nutrition and feed technology. Eds: Havler, J.E. and Tiews, K. Proceedings of a World Symposium sponsored by EIFAC/FAO/ICES/IUNS, Hamburg, 20-23 June, 1978 Schr.Bundesforschungsanst.Fisch., Hamb. (14/15) 2: 45-52

Tiwari, P., B. Kumar, M. Kaur, G. Kaur & H. Kaur. 2011. Phytochemical screening and extraction: A review. Int Pharm Sci. 1: 98-106.

Unuofin, J.O., G.A. Otunola & A.J. Afolayan. 2017. Essential oil composition, nutrient and anti-nutrient analysis of Vernonia mespilifoli. Research Journal Botany. 12 (2): 38-45.

Venkatesh, S., R.G. Dayanand, R.B. Madhawa, M. Ramesh & A.V.N. Apparao. 2003. Antihyperglycemic activity of Caralluma. Fitoterapia. 73: 274-279

Viuda-Martos, M., M.C. López-Marcos, J. Fernández-López, E. Sendra, J.H. López-Vargas & J.A. Pérez-Álvarez. 2010. Role of fiber in cardiovascular diseases: A review. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 9 (2): 240-258.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1439 | views : 809


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Perikanan Universitas Gadjah Mada

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Perikanan Universitas Gadjah Mada (print ISSN 0853-6384; online ISSN 2502-5066) is published by Department of Fisheries, Universitas Gadjah Mada in collaboration with Semnaskan UGM (Seminar Nasional Tahunan Hasil Perikanan dan Kelautan) and ISMFR (International Symposium on Marine and Fisheries Research).


View My Stats