Stylophora pistillata: Effect of Fragment Size and Water Depth on Growth Rate of Transplanted Coral

Kadek Andina Widiastuti(1*), Luh Putu Eswaryanti Kusuma Yuni(2), Ida Ayu Astarini(3)

(1) Magister of Biology Study Program, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Udayana University, South Kuta, Badung Regency, Bali
(2) Biology Study Program, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Udayana University, South Kuta, Badung Regency, Bali
(3) Biology Study Program, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Udayana University, South Kuta, Badung Regency, Bali
(*) Corresponding Author


Coral transplantation activities are carried out as conservation efforts to save coral reef ecosystems and the species that live and depend on these ecosystems. In its implementation, knowledge regarding effective and efficient transplantation methods is required. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of fragment size and water depth on the growth rate of transplanted Stylophora pistillata at Serangan Beach. By knowing this, coral transplantation activities can be carried out effectively. Field research was carried out from November to April 2022 using the Randomized Block Design method with two factors, namely depth variation (1 m, 3 m, and 5 m) and initial fragment sizes (3 cm, 5 cm and 7 cm). This study used 135 fragments of Stylophora pistillata. The analysis showed that the fragment sizes of 3 cm, 5 cm and 7 cm had significant differences in the rate of coral growth. However, based on the depth variation, only the depth of 1 m differed significantly from the other two depths. The best coral growth rate was observed in corals using an initial fragment size of 7 cm which was transplanted at a depth of 1 m with the highest average growth rates of 0.93 cm/month (height) and 0.79 cm/month (width). Based on the results, it was also known that the number of corals remaining at the end of the study was 265 fragments so the value of survival rate from transplantation activities was 97.78%. Maintaining environmental water conditions and carrying out maintenance and cleaning corals from algae and sedimentation needs to be carried out intensively to maintain the survival rate on Serangan Beach.


Serangan Beach; survival rate; transplantation; water environmental conditions

Full Text:



Ali, A.M.T & M. Bakri. 2017. Growth of coral type Acropora tenuis planted at different depths using the transplant method. UNM Environmental Journals. 1 (1): 1-7.

Anonymous. 2020. Report on the Utilization of Ornamental Coral Exports in Bali Province in 2019. Denpasar: Bali Natural Resources Conservation Agency (Unpublished).

Arisagy, C.P., R.I. Adharini & E. Setyobudi. 2021. The growth of Seriatopora hystrix (Dana, 1846) transplanted with differences of fragment size and planting position. Omni-Akuatika. 17 (1): 1-7.

As-syakur, A.R & D.B. Wiyanto. 2016. Study of hydrological conditions as locations for placement of artificial reefs in Tanjung Benoa Waters, Bali. Marine Journal. 9 (1): 85-95.

Balumpapung, J., K.A. Roeroe, C.P. Paruntu, J.D. Kusen, B.T. Wagey & A.S. Wantesan. 2022. Status of coral reefs at Malalayang Beach, Manado City, North Sulawesi. Journal of the Coastal and Tropical Sea. 10 (1): 31-37.

Barus, B.S., T. Pratono & D. Soedarma. 2018. Environmental Effects on coral reef growth forms in Lampung Bay Waters. Journal of Tropical Marine Science and Technology. 10 (3): 699-709.

Bauman, A.G., M.G.S. Pratchett, A.H. Baird, B. Riegl, S.F. Heron D.A. Feary. 2013. Variation in the size structure of corals is related to environmental extremes in the Persian Gulf. Marine Environmental Research. 84: 43-50.

Bukhari. B, R.D. Putra & D. Kurniawan. 2021. Optimizing the use of cleaning time for succession of transplanted coral Acropora millepora in Malang Rapat Waters, Bintan. National Marine Journal. 16 (2): 145-156.

Chow, G.S.E., Y.K.S. Chan, S.S. Jain & D. Huang. 2019. Light limitation selects for depth generalists in urbanised reef coral communities. Marine Environmental Research. 147: 101-112.

Cohen, I & Z. Dubinsky. 2015. Long term photoacclimation responses of the coral Stylophora pistillata to reciprocal deep to shallow transplantation : Photosynthesis and calcification. Frontiers in Marine Science. 2 (45): 1-13.

Comeau, S., P.J. Edmunds, C.A. Lantz & R.C. Carpenter. 2014. Water flow modulates the response of coral reef communities to ocean acidification. Scientific Reports. 4 (668): 1-6.

Corvianawatie, C & M. Abrar. 2018. Suitability of oceanographic conditions in supporting coral reef ecosystems in Pari Island Waters. National Marine Journal. 13 (3): 155-161.

Dahuri, R., Rais, J., Ginting, S.P. and Sitepu, MJ. 2001. Integrated Management of Coastal and Ocean Resources. Jakarta : PT. Pradnya Pramita. 305.

Dianastuty, E.H., A. Trianto S. Sedjati. 2016. Competition Study of Algae Turf and Coral Genus Acropora on Menjangan Kecil Island, Karimunjawa Archipelago, Jepara Regency. Proceedings of the 5th Annual National Seminar on Fisheries and Marine Research Results : 601-608.

Dinda, Y., M. Yusuf & D.N. Sugianto. 2012. Characteristics of current, temperature and salinity in the Karimunjawa Islands. Journal of Oceanography. 1 (2): 186-196.

Effendi, M.I. 1997. Fisheries Biology. Yogyakarta : Pustaka Nusatama Foundation. 162 p.

Ekayogiharso, E., M. Munasik & I.B. Prasetyawan. 2014. Study of ocean currents and bottom sediments in relation to coral reef conditions in the waters of Parang Island, Karimunjawa Islands, Jepara, Central Java. Journal of Oceanography. 3 (2): 181-190.

Erika, A.Y.J., R. Ramses & L. Puspita. 2019. Growth rate and survival rate of Coral Acropora sp. with different fragment attachment methods. Science Research Journal. 21 (2): 106-111.

Fachrurrozie, A., M.P. Patria & R. Widiarti. 2012. Effect of light intensity differences on Zooxanthella abundance on branched corals (Marga: Acropora) In Pari Island Waters, Thousand Islands. Aquatic Journal. 3 (2): 115-124.

Ferrigno, F., C.N. Bianchi, R. Lasagna, C. Morri, G.F. Russo & R. Sandulli. 2016. Corals in high diversity reefs resist human impact. Ecological Indicator. 70: 106-113.

Giyanto, G., A.E.W. Manuputty, M. Abrar, R.M. Siringoringo, S.S. Suharti, K. Wibowo, I.N. Edrus, U.Y. Arbi, H.A.W. Cappenberg, H.F. Sihaloho, Y. Tuti & D. Zulfianita. 2014. Coral Reef Health Monitoring Guide. Jakarta : Oceanographic Research Center LIPI. 63.

Guntur. 2011. Coral Ecology on Artificial Reefs. Bogor : Ghalia Indonesia. 140.

Hadi, T.A., G. Giyanto, B. Prayudha, M. Hafizt, A. Budiyanto & S. Suharsono. 2018. The Status of Indonesian Coral Reefs 2018. Jakarta : Oceanographic Research Center. LIPI.

Hermanto, B. 2015. The growth of Acropora formosa fragments at different sizes by transplantation method in Lembeh Strait Waters. Platax Scientific Journal. 3 (2): 90-100.

Hidayat, A.A. 2021. Easy Way to Calculate Sample Size. Surabaya: Health Books Publishing. 32 p.

Inoue, M., Suwa, R., Suzuki, A., Sakai, K., and Kawahata, H. 2011. Effects of seawater pH on growth and skeletal U/Ca ratios of Acropora digitifera coral polyps. Geophysical Research Letters. 38 (12): 1-4.

Johan, O. 2001. The Success Rate of Stone Coral Transplants in Different Locations in the Pari Island Cluster, Thousand Islands, Jakarta. Thesis. Postgraduate Program, Bogor Agricultural University (Unpublished).

Johan, O., R. Ginanjar & T. Kadarini. 2018. Transplantation of large polyp corals at different depths in nature and recreational systemsı. Journal of Aquaculture Research. 13 (3): 229-237.

Juhi, Z.S & K.A. Rabbani. 2018. The effect of increased temperature and coral acclimation of Sinularia dura. Earth and Environmental Science. 171: 1-5.

Kalangi, P.N., A. Mandagi, K.W.A. Masengi, A. Luasunaung, F.P.T. Pangalil & M. Iwata. 2013. Distribution of temperature and salinity in Manado Bay. Journal of Tropical Fisheries and Marine Affairs. 9 (2): 71-75.

Kambey, A.D. 2013. The Growth of hard coral (Acropora sp.) transplants in coral reef of Malalayang Waters, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Platax Scientific Journal. 1 (4): 196-203.

Kasmi, M., Liuw, F. A., Santoso, E., and Ilyas, M. 2017. Approach to determining export original coral quotas to support sustainable utilization in South Sulawesi. Tropical Journal. 6 (2): 134-145.

Koniyo, Y. 2020. Analysis of water quality at freshwater fish cultivation locations in Central Suwawa District. Jtech. 8 (1): 52-58.

Kuanui, P., S. Chavanich, V. Viyakarn, M. Omori & C. Lin. 2015. Effects of temperature and salinity on survival rate of cultured corals and photosynthetic efficiency of zooxanthellae in coral tissues. Ocean Science Journal. 50 (2): 263-268.

Mainassy, M.C. 2017. The effect of physical and chemical parameters on the presence of lompa fish (Thryssa baelama ForsskåL) in Apui Coastal Waters, Central Maluku Regency. Jurnal Perikanan Universitas Gadjah Mada. 19 (2): 61-66.

Mardani, J., D. Kurniawan & S. Susiana. 2021. Condition of coral reefs in Batu Bilis Island, Bunguran North, Natuna Regency. Journal of Oseana. 46 (1): 13-22.

Masriatini, R., N. Sari & Z. Imtinan. 2019. Physical quality analysis of Lematang River Water in Lahat Regency. Redox Journal. 3 (1): 27-35.

Mass, T., D.I. Kline, M. Roopin, C.J. Veal, S. Cohen, D. Iluz & O. Levy. 2010. The spectral photosynthesis and photoadaptation in Stylophora pistillata colonies from different depths in The Red Sea. The Journal of Experemintal Biology. 213 (23): 4084-4091.

Nikita. L., Paulangan, Y.P., and Hamuna, B. 2021. Sedimentation rate in coral reef ecosystem waters in Yakore Village, Demta District, Jayapura Regency. Acropora: Journal of Marine and Fisheries Science Papua. 4 (1): 28-35.

Nontji, A. 1993. Archipelago Sea. Jakarta : Djambatan. 372.

Nurcahyani, L.P.A.D., I.W.G.A. Karang & W. Karim. 2018. Growth rate and survival rate of coral Acropora cecale transplant at Serangan Beach and Geger Beach, Bali. Journal of Marine and Aquatic Sciences. 4 (2): 297-303.

Nurman, F.H., B. Sadarun & R.D. Palupi. 2017. Survival rate of coral Acropora formosa as transplantation results in Sawapudo Waters Soropia District. Sapa Laut Journal. 2 (4): 119-125.

Nybakken, J.W. 2018. Marine Biology An Ecological Approach. Jakarta: PT. Gramedia. 480.

Ompi, B.N., U.N.W.J. Rambet & A.B. Rondonuwu. 2019. Condition of coral reefs on Hogow and Dakokayu Islands, Southeast Minahasa Regency. Platax Scientific Journal. 7 (1): 186-192.

Orejas, C., A. Gori, C.R. Menendez, K.S. Last, A.J. Davies, C.M. Beveridge, D. Sadd, K. Kiriakoulakis, U. Witte & J.M. Roberts. 2016. The effect of flow speed and food size on the capture efficiency and feeding behaviour the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 481: 34-40.

Patty, S.I & N. Akbar. 2018. Conditions of temperature, salinity, pH and Dissolved oxygen in coral reef waters of Ternate, Tidore and Surrounding Areas. Archipelago Marine Science Journal. 1 (2): 1-10.

Patty, S.I. 2013. Distribution of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen in Kema Waters, North Sulawesi. Platax Scientific Journal. 1 (3): 148-157.

Prameliasari, R.T.A., M. Munasik & D.P. Wijayanti. 2012. The effect of differences in fragment size and transplantation methods on the growth of coral Pocillopora damicornis in Teluk Awur, Jepara. Journal of Marine Research. 1 (1): 159-168.

Prasetyo, A.B.T., L.P.S. Yuliadi, S. Astuty & D.J. Prihadi. 2018. The relationship between substrate type and sedimentation rate with coral reef cover conditions in Panggang Island Waters, Thousand Islands National Park. Journal of Fisheries and Marine. 9 (2): 1-7.

Prayoga, B., M. Munasik & I. Irwani. 2019. Differences in transplantation methods on the growth rate of Acropora aspera on artificial patch reef on Panjang Island, Jepara. Journal of Marine Research. 8 (1): 1-10.

Putra, P.A.P., I.W. Restu & N.M. Ernawati. 2020. Comparative study of coral reef growth of Acropora, Montipora and Stylophora with transplant techniques in Serangan Coastal Waters, Denpasar, Bali. Current Trends in Aquatic Science. 3 (1): 69-75.

Rani, C., A. Tahir, J. Jompa, A. Faisal, S. Yusuf, S. Werorilangi & A. Arniati. 2017. The success of coral reef rehabilitation due to bleaching events in 2016 with transplant techniques. Spermonde. 3 (1): 13-19.

Risk. M.J. 2014. Assessing the effects of sediments and nutrients on coral reefs. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability. 7: 108-117.

Rizal, S., A. Pratomo & H. Irawan. 2016. Coral reef ecosystem cover level in Terkulai Island Waters. FKIP-UMRAH. 1-11.

Rizqika, C.N.A., S. Supriharyono & N. Latifah. 2018. Growth rate of coral reef Acropora formosa on Menjangan Kecil Island, Karimunjawa National Park. Journal of Maquares. 7 (4): 315-322.

Rohata, F.N & M. Iryanti. 2020. Prediction of the 2020-2021 ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation) Phenomenon Based on the SOI (Southern Oscilation Index) Value Using the ARIMA (Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average) Method. Proceedings of the National Seminar on Physics. 6.0: 178-184.

Sadarun. 1999. Transplantation of Stone Coral (Stony Coral) in the Thousand Islands Bay of Jakarta. Thesis. Bogor : Postgraduate Program at Bogor Agricultural University. (Unpublished).

Sartimbul, A., F. Iranawati, A.B. Sambah, D. Yona, N. Hidayati, L.I. Harlyan, M.A.Z. Fuad, & S.H.J. Sari. 2017. Management of Pelagic Fisheries Resources in Indonesia. Malang : UB Press.

Schutter, M., Kranenbarg, S., Wijffels, R.H., Verreth, J. and Osinga, R. 2011. Modification of light utilization for skeletal growth by water flow in the sclerectinian coral Galaxea fascicularis. Mar Biol. 158: 769-777.

Scucchia, F., H. Nativ, M. Neder, G. Goodbody-Gringley & T. Mass. 2020. Physiological characteristics of Stylophora pistillata larvae across a depth gradient. Frontiers in Marine Science. 7 (13): 1-9.

Sidabutar, E.A., A. Sartimbul & M. Handayani. 2019. Distribution of temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen to depth in Prigi Bay Waters, Trenggalek Regency. Journal of Fisheries and Marine Research. 3 (1): 46-52.

Subhan, B., D. Soedharma, D. Arafat, H. Maddupa, A. Ervinia A. Bramandito, D. Khaerudi & A.T. Ghozali. 2012. The effect of light on survival rate and growth of soft coral Lobophytum strictum (Octocoralia: Alcyonacea) transplant results in recirculation system. Journal of Fisheries and Marine Technology. 3 (2): 35-42.

Subhan, B., Madduppa, H., Arafat, D., and Soedharma, D. 2014. Can Coral Transplants Improve Coral Reef Ecosystems?. Agricultural and Environmental Policy Minutes. 1 (3): 159-164.

Suharsono, S., R.M. Siringoringo, T.A. Hadi, G. Giyanto, Y. Tuti, A. Budiyanto S. Sulha. 2013. Development of Coral Transplant Techniques in Indonesia. Jakarta: Oceanographic Research Center LIPI. 62.

Suharsono. 2008 . Types of Coral in Indonesia. Jakarta : LIPI Press. 382.

Supriharyono. 2000. Coral Reef Ecosystem Management. Jakarta: Djambatan. 129.

Supriyadi, S., A. Sawiji & D.S. Maisaroh. 2020. Effect of oceanographic factors and sediment suspension on growth and mortality of transplanted corals (Acropora spp.) in Paiton, Probolinggo. Journal of Marine Resources and Coastal Management. 1 (1): 7-16.

Sutono, D & S.B. Lubis. 2018. Coral Reefs, Pieh Island Aquatic Tourism Park, West Sumatra. Journal of Airaha. 7 (2): 70-76.

Tioho, H & M.A.J. Karauwan. 2014. Transplantation of coral fragments of Acropora formosa (Scleractinia). Jurnal Aquatic Science & Management. Edisi Khusus (2): 1-7.

Tioho, H., C.P. Paruntu & H. Patrich. 2013. Survival and growth rate of transplanted Scleractinia corals on average Kalasei Aquatic Reef, Minahasa Regency, North Sulawesi. Aquatic Science & Management. 1 (2): 111-116.

Veron, J.E.N., L.M. DeVantier, E. Turak, A.L. Green, S. Kininmonth, M.S. Smith & N. Peterson. 2011. The Coral Triangle. Coral Reefs: An Ecosystem in Transition. 47-55.

Yanti, N.D. 2016. Assessment of the Acidity Condition of Coastal and Marine Waters in Pangkajene Islands Regency in the Transitional Season I. Thesis. Makassar: Hassanuddin University.

Zamani, N. P. 2015. Condition of coral reefs and their association with starfish (Linckia laevigata) in Tunda Island Waters, Seram Regency, Banten Province. Journal of Fisheries and Marine Technology. 6 (1): 1-10.

Zurba, N. 2019. Introduction of Coral Reefs As The Main Potential of Our Seas. Lhokseumawe: Unimal Press. 116.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 609 | views : 112


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Perikanan Universitas Gadjah Mada

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Perikanan Universitas Gadjah Mada (print ISSN 0853-6384; online ISSN 2502-5066) is published by Department of Fisheries, Universitas Gadjah Mada in collaboration with Semnaskan UGM (Seminar Nasional Tahunan Hasil Perikanan dan Kelautan) and ISMFR (International Symposium on Marine and Fisheries Research).


View My Stats