Acute Exposure to Textile Waste Water Altered the Reproduction Biomarkers in Clarias gariepinus Broodstock

Abiola Fadilat Durojaiye(1*), Nathanael Akinsafe Bamidele(2), Musa Dabo(3), Adijat Remilekun Moshood(4)

(1) Department of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeriarsity,Ago-Iwoye
(2) Institute of Food Security, Environmental Resources and Agricultural Research, Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Nigeria
(3) Department of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria
(4) Department of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria
(*) Corresponding Author


This study was prompted by an earlier study that revealed the absence of gonads in all fish species caught around the Itoku tributary of the Ogun River, an area known for active textile activities. Thus, this study investigated the effect of textile wastewater on reproduction biomarkers in African catfish broodstock. Male and female broodstock were exposed to varying pre-determined concentrations (0ppb-T0, 0.5ppb-T1, 0.35ppb-T2, 2ppb-T3) of the textile wastewater for a period of 96 hours. Water quality parameters, seminal/ovarian hormones, metabolites, ions, oxidative, enzymes, and sperm viability were assayed. The water quality parameters of the wastewater indicated varying degrees of physical and chemical pollution. The values of hormones were significantly different (p<0.05) although a trend was not observed. Prolactin, however, showed a marked difference statistically across the treatments in the male broodstock while a reverse trend was observed in the female broodstock. The values recorded for seminal metabolites increased significantly compared to the control except for T3 for cholesterol and T1 glucose which were significantly lower than the control. In the female broodstock, the values for glucose and creatinine significantly increased compared to the control. Seminal ions evaluated showed significant differences across treatments. Except for T1, there was a significant reduction observed in the values of sodium, chloride, and calcium compared to the control. For ovarian ions, a significant increase was recorded across the treatments compared to the control. However, sodium recorded a significant decrease compared to the control except for T3 where the value was higher than the control. In the male broodstock, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase values were significantly lower compared to control while an opposite trend was observed in the female broodstock. The concentration of sperm and life- to-death ratio significantly reduced across treatments compared to the control. These results indicate that the textile wastewater altered the reproduction biomarkers in the male and female broodstock. The implication of this is that reproduction in fish might become a challenge in textile wastewater polluted Itoku tributary of the Ogun River.


Aquatic health; pollution; reproduction biomarkers

Full Text:



Adeogun, A.O & A.V. Chukwuka. 2011. Effect of textile factory waste water on otolith and somatic growth parameters in Clarias gariepinus. Zoologist. 9: 70-77.

Aire, T.A. 2005. Short-term effects of carbendazim on the gross and microscopic features of the testes of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica). Anat Embryol (Berlin). 210:43-49.

Ajavi, S.M.H., J. Cosson, K. Coward & G. Rafiee. 2008. Fish Spermatology. Alpha Science International Ltd. Oxford, UK. 397 p.

Akbarsha, M.A., B. Kadalmani, R. Girija & A. Faridha. 2000. Carbendazim generates symplasts in rat spermatogenic clones. Indian journal of experimental biology. 38 (12): 1251-1254.

Al-Busaidi, M., P. Yesudhason, S. Al-Mughairi, W.A.K. Al- Rahbi, K.S. Al-harth & S.H. Al-Habsi. 2011. Toxic metals in commercial marine fish in Oman with reference to national and international standards. Chemosphere. 85 (1): 67-73.

Al-Ghanim, K.A., S. Mahboob, S. Seemab, S. Sultana, T. Sultana, F. Al-Misned & Z. Ahmed. 2016. Monitoring of trace metals in tissues of Wallago attu (lanchi) from the Indus River as an indicator of environmental pollution. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 23 (1): 72-78.

American Public Health Association (APHA). 1995. Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water, 19th Edn, American Public Health Association Inc, New York.

Ankley, G.T., K.M. Jensen, M.D. Kahl, J.J. Korte & E.A. Makynen. 2001. Description and evaluation of a short-term reproduction test with the fathead minnow (Pimephaless promelas). Environmental Toxicology and Chemstry. 20 (6): 1276-1290.

Authman, M.M.N., M.S. Zaki, E.A. Khallaf & H.H. Abbas. 2015. Use of fish as bio- indicator of the effects of heavy metals pollution. J. Aquac. Res. Dev. 6 (4): 328.

Banaee, M., A. Sureda, A.R. Mirvaghefi & K. Ahmadi. 2011. Effects of diazinon on biochemical parameters of blood and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Pest Biochem Physiol. 99 (1): 1-6.

Bashir, I., F.A. Lone, R.A. Bhat, S.A. Mir, Z.A. Dar & S.A. Dar. 2020. Concerns and threats of contamination on aquatic ecosystems. Bioremediation biotechnol. Sustain. Approaches to pollut. Degrad. 1-26.

Baumann, H., SC. Talmage & C.J. Gobler. 2012. Reduced early life growth and survival in a fish in direct response to increased carbon dioxide. Nat Clim Chang. 2 (1): 38-41.

Berradi, M., R. Hsissou, M. Khudhair, M. Assouag, O. Cherkaoui, A. El Bachiri & A. El Harfi. 2019. Textile finishing dyes and their impact on aquatic environs. Heliyon 14 (5): 11.

Bohl, M. 1989. Optimal water quality-basis of fish health and economical production. Current trends in fish therapy. Deutsche VeterinärmedizinischeGesellschaft e. V., Giessen.1832 p.

Booth, J.H., G.F. Jansz & G.F. Holeton. 1982. Cl-, K+ and acid-base balance in rainbow trout during exposure to and from sublethal environmental acid Can. J. Zool. 60:1123-1130.

Boyd, C.E & C.S. Tucker. 1998. Pond Aquaculture Water Quality Management. KluwerAcademic Publishers, Norwell, Massachusetts.

Boyd, C.E. 2003. Guidelines for aquaculture effluent management at farm level. Aquaculture. 226 (1-4): 101-112.

Bruning, A., F. Hölker, S. Franke, W. Kleiner & W. Kloas. 2016. Impact of different colours of artificial light at night on melatonin rhythm and gene expression of gonadotropins in European perch. Science of the Total Environment. 543: 214-222.

Cavaco, J.E.B. (2005). Sex steroids and spermatogenesis in the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine. 51 (2): 99-107.

Cicik, B & K. Engin, K. 2005. The effects of cadmium on levels of glucose in serum and glycogen reserves in the liver and muscle tissues of Cyprinus carpio (L. 1758). Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci. 29: 113-117.

Dabrowska, M.W., A. Tomza-Marciniak, B. Pilarczyk & A. Balicka-Ramisz, A. 2013. Roe and red deer as bioindicators of heavy metals contamination in north-western Poland. Chemistry and Ecology. 29 (2): 1 00-110.

Das, M., M.K. Ahmed, M.S. Islam & S.M. Akter. 2011. Heavy metals in industrialeffluents (tanney and textile) and adjacent rivers of Dhaka city Bangladesh. Terrestrialand Aquatic Environmental Toxicolog. 5 (1): 8-13.

Das, P.C., S. Ayyappan, B.K. Das & J.K. Jena. 2004. Nitrite toxicity in Indian major carps: sublethal effect on selected enzymes in fingerlings of Catla catla, Labeo rohita, and Cirrhinus mrigala. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. 138 (1): 3-10.

De, A.K. 1989. Environmental Chemistry. Wiley Eastern Limited, New Delhi, India. 4243 p.

Delistraty, D & A. Stone. 2007. Dioxins, metals and fish toxicity in ash residue from spaceheaters burning used motor oil. Chemosphere. 68 (5): 907- 914.

Department of Environment (DOE). 1997. Bangladesh Gazette, No. DA-1; Department ofEnvironment. Ministry of Environment and Forest. 1324-1327 p.

Durborow, R.M., D.M. Crosby & M.W. Brunson. 1997. Ammonia in Fish Ponds, Fact SheetNo. 463, Southern Regional Aquaculture Center.

Ekubo, A.J & J.F.N. Abowel. 2011. Aspects of aquatic pollution in Nigeria. Res J Environ Earth Sci. 3: 673-693

Elgarahy, A.M., K.Z. Elwakeel, S.H. Mohammad & G.A. Elshoubaky. 2021. A critical review of biosorption of dyes, heavy metals and metalloids from wastewater as an efficient and green process. Clean. Eng. Technol. 4: 100209.

Fakayode, S.O. 2005. Impact assessment of industrial effluent on water quality of the receiving Alaro river in Ibadan, Nigeria. J. Environ. Assessment Manage. 10: 1-13.

FAO. 1993. Fisheries Department FAO Regional Fisheries Officers Directors of Fisheries.

Fazio, F. 2019. Fish hematology analysis as an important tool of aquaculture: a review. Aquaculture. 500: 237-242.

Frommel, A.Y., R. Maneja, D. Lowe, A.M. Malzahn, A.J. Geffen & A. Folkvord. 2012. Severe tissue damage in Atlantic cod larvae under increasing ocean acidification. Nat Clim Chang. 2 (1):42-46.

Gaber, H.S., M.A. El-Kasheif, S.A. Ibrahim & M. Authman. 2013. Effect of water pollution in El-Rahawy drainage canal on hematology and organs of freshwater fish. World Appl. Sci.J., 21 (2): 329-341.

Ghaedi, M., S. Hajjati, Z. Mahmudi, I. Tyagi, S. Agarwal, A. Maity & V.K. Gupta. 2015. Modeling of competitive ultrasonic assisted removal of the dyesMethylene blue and Safranin-O using Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Chem. Eng. J. 268: 28-37.

Ghaly, A.E., R. Ananthashankar, M. Alhattab & V.V. Ramakrishnan. 2014. Production, characterization and treatment of textile effluents: A critical review. Journal of chemical engineering and process technology. 5 (1): 5-11.

Ghani, S.A.A. 2015. Trace metals in seawater, sediments and some fish species from MarsaMatrouh beaches in North-Western Mediterranean coast, Egypt. Egypt J Aquat Res. 41 (2): 145-154.

Gomez, N., M.V. Sierra, A. Cortelezzi & A.R. Capitulo. 2008. Effect of discharges from the textile industry on the biota integrity of benthic assemblages. Ecot. Env. Saf. 69 (3): 472479.

Hajirezaee, S., B.M. Amiri & A. Mirvaghefi. 2009. Effects of Stripping Frequency on Semen Quality of Endangered Caspian Brown Trout, Salmo trutta caspius. American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences. 4 (3): 65-71.

Hajirezaee, S., B.M. Amiri & A. Mirvaghefi. 2010. Fish milt quality and major factors influencing the milt quality parameters: A review. African Journal of Biotechnology. 9 (54):9148-54.

Hampel, M., J. Blasco & H. Segner. 2015. Molecular and cellular effects of contamination in aquatic ecosystems. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 22 (22):17261-17266.

Hem, J.D. 1970. Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural water. U.S.Geological Survey, Water Supply Paper 1473. U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

Hernández-Ochoa, I., G. García-Vargas, L. López-Carrillo, M. Rubio-Andrade, J. Morán-Martínez, M.E. Cebrián & B. Quintanilla-Vega. 2005. Low lead environmental exposure alters semen quality and sperm chromatin condensation in northern Mexico. Reproductive Toxicology 20 (2): 221-228.

Hughes, S.R., P. Kay & L.E. Brown. 2013. Global synthesis and critical evaluation of pharmaceutical data sets collected form river systems. Environ Sci Technol. 47 (2): 661-677.

Kassaye, B.W. 2013. Toxicity Evaluation of Waste Treatment Plant of Textile Waste water UsingFish: Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. International Journal of Aquaculture. 3 (10): 4348

Khalaj, M., M. Kamali, Z. Khodaparast & A. Jahanshahi. 2018. Copper-based nanomaterials for environmental decontamination An overview on technical and toxicological aspects. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 148: 813-824.

Kroeker, K.J., R.L. Kordas, R. Crim, I.E. Hendriks, L. Ramajo, G.S. Singh, C.M. Duarte & J.P. Gattuso. 2013. Impacts of ocean acidification on marine organisms: Quantifying sensitivities and interaction with warming. Glob Chang Biol. 19 (6): 1884-1896.

Kumar, S.; N. Sathwara, A. Gautam, K. Agarwal, B. Shah, P. Kulkarni, K. Patel, A. Patel, L. Dave, D. Parikh & H. Saiyed. 2005. Semen quality of industrial workers occupationally exposed to chromium. Journal of Occupational Health. 47 (5): 424-430.

Lahnsteiner, F., T. Weismann & R.A. Patzner. 1995. Composition of ovarian fluid of 4 salmonid species: Onchorynchus mykiss, Salmo trutta f lacustris, Saivelinus alpinus and Hucho hucho. Reproduction Nutrition Development, EDP Sciences. 35 (5): 465-474.

Little, E.E., J.F. Fairchild & A.J. DeLoany. 1993. Behavioural methods for assessing impacts of contaminants on early life stage fishes. Am. Fisheries Soc. Symp. 14: 67-76.

Malaj, E., P.C. von der Ohe, M. Grote, R. Kühne, C.P. Mondy, P. Usseglio-Polatera, W. Brack. & R.B. Schäfer. 2014. Organic chemicals jeopardize the health of freshwater ecosystems on the continental scale. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 111 (26): 9549-9554.

Mathur, N., G. Pandey & G.C. Jain. 2010. Male reproductive toxicity of some selected metals: A review. Journal of Biological Sciences. 10 (5): 396-404.

Mudhoo, A., D.L. Ramasamy, A. Bhatnagar, M. Usman & M. Sillanpa¨a. 2020. An analysis¨ of the versatility and effectiveness of composts for sequestering heavy metal ions, dyes and xenobiotics from soils and aqueous milieus. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 197 (1): 110587.

Natarajan, D. 1985. Induction of branchial enzymes in snake head (Channa astriatus) by oxydemeton-methyl. Pesticide biochemistry and physiology. 23 (1): 41-46.

Ofor, C.O & H. Udeh. 2012. Effect of water hardness on fertilisation and hatching success of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) and Heterobranchus longifilis Valenciennes, 1840eggs fertilised with C. gariepinus sperm. Asian Fisheries Society 25: 270-277.

Ogugbue, C.J & T. Sawidis. 2011. Bioremediation and detoxification of synthetic wastewater containing triarylmethane dyes by Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from industrial wastewater. Biotechnology Research International 2011:1-11. https://doi:10.4061/2011/967925

Ogundiran, M.A., O.O. Fawole, S.O. Adewoye & T.A. Ayandiran. 2010. Toxicological impact of detergent effluent on juvenile of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) (Buchell 1822) Agric. Biol. J. North Am. 1 (3): 330-342.

Oguntuase, G.B & O.T. Adebayo. 2014. Sperm Quality and reproductive performance of male Clarias gariepinus induced with synthetic hormones (Ovatide and Ovaprim). International Journal of Fisheries and Aquaculture. 6 (1): 9-15.

Ojekunle, Z.O., G.C. Ufoegbune, F.F. Oyebamiji, R.O. Sangowusi, A. Taiwo & V.O. Ojekunle. 2014. Assessment of the effect of commercial activities on the surface water quality of OgunRiver, Nigeria. Merit Research Journal. 2 (9): 196-204.

Olaganathan, R & J. Patterson. 2013. Effect of anthraquinone dyes on the carbohydrate,protein and lipid content in the muscle of Channa punctatus and Cyprinus carpio.International Journal of Pharmaceutical Applications. 4 (1): 11-19.

Olisah, C., J.B. Adams & G. Rubidge. 2021. The state of persistent organic pollutants in South African estuaries: A review of environmental exposure and sources. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 219: 112316.

Oloyede, A.M., O. Ogunlaja & A. Ogunlaja. 2014. Sub-chronic toxicity assessment of localtextile Adire and Kampala (Tie and Dye) waste waters on Mice (Musmus culus).Research Journal of Environment Sciences. 8 (3): 142-148.

Ozegbe, P.C & O.O. Aina. 2012. Effects of dietary protein-energy malnutrition on the testes of Japanese Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) exposed to carbendazim. Afr J Biomed Res. 15 (2):117-121.

Parrino, V., T. Cappello, TG. Costa, C. Cannavà, M. Sanfilippo, F. Fazio & S. Fasulo, S. 2018. Comparative study of haematology of two teleost fish (Mugil cephalus and Carassius auratus) from different environments and feeding habits. Eur. Zool. J. 85 (1) :194-200.

Pathan, T.S., D.L. Sonawane & Y.K. Khillare. 2009. Toxicity and Behavioural Changes in Freshwater Fish Rasboradaniconius exposed to paper mill effluent. Bot. Res. Int. 2 : 263-266.

Patil, R., M. Zahid, S. Govindwar, R. Khandare, G. Vyavahare, R. Gurav, N. Desai, S. Pandit & J. Jadhav. 2022. Constructed wetland: A promising technology for the treatment of hazardous textile dyes and effluent. Development in Wastewater Treatment Research and Processes. Removal of Emerging Contaminants from Wastewater Through Bio-nanotechnolog.

Rafia, A. & Foozia, B. 2013. Impacts of textile waste water on fingerlings of freshwaterreservoir. Asian Journal of Chemistry. 25 (16): 9341-9344.

Rahman, M.S., A..H. Molla, N. Saha. & A. Rahman. 2012. Study on heavy metals and itsrisk assessment in some edible fishes from Bangshi river, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Food Chemistry. 134 (4):1 847-854.

Roy, R., A.N.M. Fakhruddin, R. Khatun, M.S. Islam, M.A. Ahsan & A.J.M.T. Neger. 2010. Characterization of textile industrial waste waters and its effects on aquaticmacrophytes and algae, Bangladesh J. Sci. Ind. Res 45 (1): 79-84.

Runnalls, T.J., D.N. Hala & J.P. Sumpter. 2007. Preliminary studies into the effects of the human pharmaceutical Clofibric acid on sperm parameters in adult Fathead minnow. Aquat Toxicol. 84 (1): 111-8.

Samuel, P.O., J.A. Adakole & B. Suleiman. 2017. Histopathological alterations in kidney and liver of Clarias gariepinus (burchell, 1822) studied in river Galma, Nigeria. Applied Scientific Reports. 4 (1): 1-8.

Sayed, A.E.H., I.A.A. Mekkawy & U.M. Mahmoud. 2012. Effects of 4-nonylphenol on metabolic enzymes, some ions and biochemical blood parameters of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822). Afr J Bio Res. 5: 287-297.

Schmeller, D.S., A. Loyau, K. Bao, W. Brack, A. Chatzinotas, F. De Vleeschouwer, J. Friensen, L. Gandois, S.V. Hannson, M. Haver, G. Le Roux, J. Shen, R. Teisserenc & V.T. Vredenburg. 2018. People, pollution and pathogens – Global change impacts in mountain freshwater ecosystems. Science of the Total Environment. 622–623:756–763.

Sepici-Dinçel, A., A.C.K. Benli, M. Selvi, R. Sarıkaya, D. Şahin, I.A. Özkul & F. Erkoç. 2009. Sub-lethalcyfluthrin toxicity to carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fingerlings: biochemical, haematological histopathological alterations. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 72 (5): 1433-1439.

Shaanmugam, A. 1993. Enzymes and Carbohydrates Metabolism, In: Fundamentals of Biochemistry for Medical Students, Karthik Printers, Madras India. 145 p.

Sharma, Y.C. 2012. A guide to the economic removal of metals from aqueous solutions. Wiley-Scrivener, New Jersey. 116 p.

Singha, K., P. Pandit, S. Maity & S.R. Sharma. 2021. Harmful environmental effects for textile chemical dyeing practice. Green Chemistry for Sustainable Textiles. Woodhead Publishing, 153-164 p.

Srivastava, S., P. Prabhakar, B. Singh & B.C. Srivastava. 2007. Toxicity and behavior of the fish Labeorohita and Channa punctatus exposed to pulp and paper mill effluent. J. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Monit. 17: 241-244.

Svobodová, Z. 1993. Water Quality and Fish Health. FAO, Rome, EIFAC technical paper No. 54, 67 p.

Taiwo, I. O., O.A. Olopade & A.F. Gafar. 2015. An analysis of some heavy metals in the water, sediments and some fishery organisms from Yewa Lagoon, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Animal Production. 42 (1): 218-222.

Tamburlini, G., O.V. Ehrenstein & R. Bertollini. 2002. Children’s health and environment: areview of evidence.In: Environmental issue Report No. 129. WHO/EuropeanEnvironment Agency, WHO, Geneva, 223 p.

Tiwari, S & A. Singh. 2004. Piscicidal activity of alcoholic extract of Nerium indicum leaf and their biochemical stress response on fish metabolism. Afr J Trad CAM. 1 (1): 15-29.

Tucker, C. S. (1991). Water Quantity and Quality Requirements for Channel Catfish Hatcheries, Fact Sheet No. 461, Southern Regional Aquaculture Center.:

Tufekci, N., N. Sivri & I. Toroz. 2007. Pollutants of textile industry wastewater andassessment of its discharge limits by water quality standards. Turkish Journal ofFisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 7 (2): 97-103.

Wang, Y.; Ferrari, M.C.; Hoover, Z.; Yousafzai, A.M.; Chivers, D.P. & Niyogi, S. (2014). The effects of chronic exposure to environmentally relevant levels of waterborne cadmium on reproductive capacity and behaviour in fathead minnows. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 67 (2): 181-91.

Wirth, J.J., M.G. Rossano, D.C. Daly, N. Paneth, E. Puscheck, R.C. Potter & M.P. Diamond. 2007. Ambient manganese exposure is negatively associated with human sperm motility and concentration. Epidemiology 18 (2): 270-3.

World Health Organization (WHO). 1984. Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. World Health Organization, Geneva, 1: 129.

World Health Organization (WHO). 2003. Emerging issues in water and infectious disease. Geneva

Zhao, S., C. Feng, W. Quan, X. Chen, J., Niu & Z. Shen. 2012. Role of living environments in the accumulation characteristics of heavy metals in fishes and crabs in the Yangtze River Estuary, China. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 64 (6): 1163-1171.

Zhao, S., X. Shi, C. Li, H. Zhang & Wu, Y. 2014. Seasonal variation of heavy metals in sediment of Lake Ulansuhai, China. Chemistry and Ecology. 30 (1): 1-14.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 379 | views : 324


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Perikanan Universitas Gadjah Mada

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Perikanan Universitas Gadjah Mada (print ISSN 0853-6384; online ISSN 2502-5066) is published by Department of Fisheries, Universitas Gadjah Mada in collaboration with Semnaskan UGM (Seminar Nasional Tahunan Hasil Perikanan dan Kelautan) and ISMFR (International Symposium on Marine and Fisheries Research).


View My Stats