PENGKAYAAN β-KAROTEN PADA COKELAT BATANG DENGAN PENAMBAHAN Spirulina platensis

https://doi.org/10.22146/jfs.9134

Himawasesa P. Negara(1), Iwan Y. B. Lelana(2), Nurfitri Ekantari(3*)

(1) Jurusan Perikanan, Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Jurusan Perikanan, Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada
(3) Jurusan Perikanan, Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


The aim of this research was to determined the level of acceptance of the panelists as well as β-carotene content of the chocolate bars which is enriched with Spirulina platensis. This research used Completely Randomized Design. Spirulina platensis was added at various concentrations  0, 5, 10, 15% (w/w). Each treatment was repeated 3 times. The results showed that chocolate bar was added 5% S. platensis is the most preferred treatment by panelists, with characteristics as follows: no fishy odor, no bitter taste and its texture when in the mouth like slightly sandy. The chemical content of this product were 1,63% moisture, 3,83% ash , 9,22% protein, 56,24% fat, and 29,08% carbohydrate. Besides that, its had 70,33 μg /g of β-carotene which is equivalent to 11,72 RE /g. Consuming 30 g chocolate bar enriched S.platensis 5 % ( w/w ) per day could provide for 60-70 % of the vitamin A, served an energy of 197,81 kcal intake and 351,6 RE provitamin A or supplied 9,65% of the energy needs and fulfi ll 50% -70% of vitamin A base on recommended daily intake.

Keywords


chocolate bar, enrichment, Spirulina platensis, β-carotene

Full Text:

PDF


References

Afoakwa, E. 2010. Chocolate Science and Technology. Wiley-Blackwell. UK.

Almatsier, S. 2001. Prinsip Pangan Ilmu Gizi. Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Jakarta. 296 p.

Anonim. 2003. Manfaat Cokelat Bagi Kesehatan. (http://www.sinarharapan.co.id/iptek/ kesehatan/2003/0509/kes1.html.) Diakses pada tanggal 3 desember 2012.

Belitz, H. D., Gramosch, W. & Schieberle, P. 2009. Food Chemistry. 4th Revised and Extended ed. Springer-Verlag Heidelberg, Berlin.

Ciferri, O. 1983. Spirulina The Edible microorganisme. Microbial Review. American Society. 1023 p.

Codex Stan. 2003. Codex Standard For Chocolate And Chocolate Products 87-1981, Rev. 1.

Fennema, O. R. 1985. Food Chemistry 3rd Edition. Marcel Dekker Inc. New York.

Gardjito, M., & Agung, S. W. 2003. Hortikultura : Teknik Analisis Pasca Panen. Transmedia Global Wacana. Yogyakarta.

Gomez, K. A. & Gomez, A. A. 1984. Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Canada.

Haryadi dan Supriyanto. 2012. Teknologi Cokelat. Gadjah Mada University Press. Yogyakarta.

Henrikson, R. 2000. Earth Food Spirulina. Essential Fatty Acids and Phytonutrients. Ronore Enterprises, Inc. California. < Diakses tanggal 30 November 2013.

Jinap, S. 1998. Effect of Drying on Acidity and Volatile Fatty-Acids Content of Cocoa beans. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture.

Kabinawa. 2006. Spirulina Penggempur Aneka Penyakit. PT AgroMedia Pustaka. Jakarta.

Karrer, P. dan Jucker, E. 1950. Carotenoids. Elsevier Publishing Company Inc. Netherland.

Kartika, B., Hastuti, P. & Supartono, W. 1988. Pedoman Uji Inderawi Bahan Pangan. PAU Pangan dan Gizi. Universitas Gadjah Mada. Yogyakarta.

Kritchevsky, S. B. 1999. Beta Carotene, carotenoids and the prevention of coronary heart disease. Journal of Nutrition (129): 5-8

Kusnandar, F. 2010. Kimia Pangan Komponen Makro. Dian Rakyat. Jakarta.

Lee, R. & Jacksson, E. B. 1985. Sugar Confectionary and Chocolate Manufacture. East Kilbride, Leonard Hill, Thompson Litho Ltd. Scotland.

Marquez, F. J., Sasaki, K., Kakizono, T., Nishio, N. & Nagai, S. 1993. Growth characteristic of Spirulina platensis in mixotrophic and heterotrophic conditions. Journal of Fermentation Bioeng. 76(5): 408-410.

Marx, M., M. Stuparic, A. Schieber, R. Carle. 2002. Effects of Thermal Processing on tran-cis-isomerazation of Beta Carotene in Carrot Juices and Carotene Containing Preparations. Food Chemistry 83: 609 – 617.

Matz, S. A. 1972. Bakery: Technology and Engineering. The AVI Publishing Co. Inc., Westport Connecticut.

Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. 2002. Keputusan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Nomor 913/ MENKES/SK/VII/2002. Angka Kecukupan Gizi yang Dianjurkan Bagi Bangsa Indonesia. Jakarta.

Michael, M. 2010. Chocolate Bar. http://wisata. kompasiana.com/2010/12/18/Bar-masih-delicious. (Diakses tanggal 3 desember 2012).

Minifi e, B. W. C. Chem FRS-C. 1982. Chocolate C. Agritezocoa and Confectionary. Westport : The AVI Publishing.

Muherdiyantiningsih., Nuning, M. K., Muhilal., Martuti, S., Wieringa, F. T. & Marjoleine, A. D. 2003. Kekurangan vitamin A pada kelompok bayi dan faktor yang berhubungan di Kabupaten Bogor. Jurnal Penelitian Gizi Makan. 26(2):20-26.

Ningtias, W. Y. 2009. Strategi Pengembangan Usaha Kecil “Waroeng Cokelat” (Kasus Usaha Kecil dan Menengah di Kecamatan Bogor Utara, Jawa Barat). Institut Pertanian Bogor. Bogor.

Parker, G., Isabella, P., Heather, B. 2006. Mood State Effects of Chocolate. Journal of Affective Disorders.

Satriyanto, B., Simon, B. W. & Yunianta. 2012. Stabilitas warna ekstrak buah merah (Pandanus conoideus) terhadap pemanasan sebagai sumber potensial pigmen alami. Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian, Universitas Brawijaya. Jurnal Teknologi Pertanian, 13(3): 157-168.

Scholl, T. O., Leskiw, M., Chen, X., Sims, M. & Stein, T. P. 2005. Oxidative Stress, Diet, and The Etiology of Preeclampsia. Am J Clin Nutr, 81(6):1390-1396.

Schantz, B., Lothar, L. & Harald, R. 2002. Effect Differents Emulsifi er on Rheological and Physical Properties. Dresden : Insitute of Food Processing and Engineering.

Setyaningsih, D., Apryanto, A. & Sari, M. P. 2010. Analisis Sensori untuk Industri Pangan dan Agro. IPB Press. Bogor.

Setyo, M. E. dan Yulianti, L.N. 2004. Membuat Aneka Roti. Penebar Swadaya. Jakarta

Standar Nasional Indonesia. 2009. SNI 3749-2009. Kakao Massa. Badan Standarisasi Nasional. Jakarta.

Sunanto, H. 1999. Cokelat : Pengolahan Hasil dan Aspek Ekonominya. Kanisius. Yogyakarta.

Talbot, G. 1999. Chocolate Temper in Industrial Chocolate Manufacture and Use, 3rd edition. Oxford: Blackwell Science. 218–230.

Timms, R. E. 2003. Interactions between fats, bloom and rancidity. In Confectionary Fats Handbook. Properties, Production and Applications. Timms, R. E. (ED.). Bridgwater, UK: The Oily Press. 255–294.

Tjitrosoepomo, G. 1988. Taksonomi Tumbuhan (Spermatophyta). Yogyakarta : Gadjah Mada University Press.

Tri-Panji, S. S., Achmadi & Suharyanto. 2003. Pengembangan Produk Hilir Spirulina platensis. Laporan Akhir RUK VIII, Proyek Riset Unggulan Kemitraan, Kementerian Riset dan Teknologi Menara. Jakarta.

Venkataraman, L. V. 1983. A Monogramaph on Spirulina platensis Biotechnology and Application. Central Food Technology Researh Institute. Mysore, India.

Widyotomo, S. & Mulato, S. 2004. Kemajuan Perekayasaan Alat dan Mesin Pengolahan Produk Hilir Kakao Skala Menengah. Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia. Jawa Timur.

Widyotomo, S. & Mulato, S. 2008. Pengolahan Kakao Sekunder. Pusat Penelitian Kopi dan Kakao Indonesia. Jawa Timur.

Winarno, F. G. 1997. Kimia Pangan dan Gizi. PT Gramedia Pustaka. Jakarta



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jfs.9134

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1634 | views : 7773

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2016 Journal of Fisheries Sciences



Jurnal Perikanan Universitas Gadjah Mada Indexed by:

 

 

View My Stats