Studi Literatur: Tinjauan Pemeriksaan  Laboratorium pada Pasien COVID-19

https://doi.org/10.22146/jkesvo.58741

Rosdiana Mus(1*), Thaslifa Thaslifa(2), Mutmainnah Abbas(3), Yanti Sunaidi(4)

(1) Program Studi DIII Teknologi Laboratorium Medis, Fakultas Teknologi Kesehatan, Universitas Megarezky
(2) Program Studi DIII Teknologi Laboratorium Medis, Fakultas Teknologi Kesehatan, Universitas Megarezky
(3) Program Studi DIII Teknologi Laboratorium Medis, Fakultas Teknologi Kesehatan, Universitas Megarezky
(4) Program Studi DIII Teknologi Laboratorium Medis, Fakultas Teknologi Kesehatan, Universitas Megarezky
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Latar Belakang: Penyakit Corona virus 19 (COVID-19) yang disebabkan oleh SARS-COV-2 terjadi melalui droplet dengan menyerang saluran pernafasan melalui reseptor ACE2, menyebabkan pneumonia berat yaitu Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. Pemeriksaan laboratorium penting dalam menunjang diagnosis dan menilai prognosis penyakit COVID-19.

Tujuan: Tinjauan ini menjelaskan peran diagnosis dan prognosis pengembangan COVID-19 pada tes laboratorium berdasarkan kemajuan penelitian terbaru SARS-CoV-2 yang telah dilaporkan.

Metode: Penelitian bersifat studi literatur dengan menggunakan data sekunder. Sumber data penelitian berasal dari e-journal yaitu Google Scholar, Open Access, dan PubMed Central yang dilakukan skrining berdasarkan kata kunci

Hasil: Pemeriksaan imunoserologi menunjukan IgM dan IgG muncul secara berurutan pada hari ke 12 dan 14 setelah terinfeksi. Pemeriksaan hematologi melaporkan peningkatan jumlah neutrofil dan penurunan jumlah limfosit. NLR tinggi pada pasien yang parah. Pemeriksaan kimia klinik menunjukan penurunan albumin, peningkatan CRP, LDH, kreatinin, AST dan ALT.

Kesimpulan: Pemeriksaan imunoserologi dilakukan dengan pemeriksaan sel T, sel B serta menilai kadar immunoglobin (IgM dan IgG). Parameter hematologi digunakan untuk memprediksi keparahan COVID-19, termasuk limfosit, leukosit dan neutrofil. Peningkatan neutrofil-leukosit rasio (NLR)  dapat digunakan sebagai marker untuk menilai faktor risiko COVID-19. Pada pemeriksaan kimia klinik ditemukan peningkatan kadar pada parameter fungsi hati, fungsi jantung, analisa gas darah dan penanda inflamasi.


Keywords


COVID‑19; Hematologi; Imunoserologi; Kimia klinik; SARS‑COV‑2

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jkesvo.58741

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