Antidiabetic Regimen and Factors Associated with Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus in Public Health Centers in Jakarta: A Cross-Sectional Study

Nora Wulandari(1*), Maifitrianti Maifitrianti(2), Fadilla Muthi’ah(3), Nava Nur Disya(4)

(1) Faculty of Pharmacy and Science Universitas Muhammadiyah Prof. DR. HAMKA
(2) Faculty of Pharmacy and Science Universitas Muhammadiyah Prof. DR. HAMKA
(3) Faculty of Pharmacy and Science Universitas Muhammadiyah Prof. DR. HAMKA
(4) Faculty of Pharmacy and Science Universitas Muhammadiyah Prof. DR. HAMKA
(*) Corresponding Author


Background:The glycemic control of diabetes mellitus patients is affected by many factors, including its antidiabetic regimen. Objectives: This study aimed to describe the antidiabetic regimen used in patients with T2DM in the public health centres in Jakarta and to evaluate the association of the regimens and other factors with glycemic control. Methods:This was a cross-sectional study conducted in thirteen public health centres in Jakarta with HbA1C of ≤ 7% indicating good glycemic control and > 7% poor glycemic control. The univariate analysis tests were used to analyze factors that potentially associate with glycemic control. Association between antidiabetic regimen and glycemic control were done by Pearson chi-square test and Fisher exact test.Results:Combination of sulfonylureas and biguanides was the most frequent antidiabetic regimen prescribed to the patients. Univariate analysis showed that age, duration of T2DM, route of administration, number of antidiabetics, and number of other daily regular drugs significantly (P<0.05) related to glycemic control.Sulfonylurea and biguanides as monotherapy were significantly (P<0.05) associated with good glycemic control. Conclusion:Sulfonylurea and biguanide as monotherapy were found to be associated with good glycemic control. In contrast, the combination of and with the two did not show the same.


Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus; Antidiabetic regimen; Associated factors

Full Text:



WHO. Diabetes. World Health Organization. Published 2020. Accessed August 13, 2020.

American Diabetes Association (ADA). Standars of Medical Care in Diabetes 2020 ADA. Diabetes Care. 2020;42(479):960-1010. doi:10.1192/bjp.111.479.1009-a

International Diabetes Federation. International Diabetes Federation - Type 2 diabetes. International Diabetes Federation. Published 2020. Accessed August 13, 2020.

International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas Ninth Edition 2019.; 2019.

International Diabetes Federation. IDF member(s) in Indonesia. International Diabetes Federation. Published 2020. Accessed August 31, 2020.

Ministry of Health of Republic of Indonesia. The Main Results of Basic Health Research 2018. Jakarta; 2018. doi:10.1088/1751-8113/44/8/085201

Soelistijo SA et al. Consensus on the Management and Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Indonesia (PERKENI) 2015. Jakarta: Pengurus Besar Perkumpulan Endokrinologi Indonesia (PB. PERKENI); 2015.

Huri HZ, Ling DYH, Wan Ahmad WA. Association between glycemic control and antidiabetic drugs in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with cardiovascular complications. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2015;9:4735-4749. doi:10.2147/DDDT.S87294

Zaman Huri H, Lim K. Drug Design, Development and Therapy Dovepress glycemic control and antidiabetic drugs in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with renal complications. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2015. doi:10.2147/DDDT.S85676

Almetwazi M, Alwhaibi M, Balkhi B, et al. Factors associated with glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Pharm J. 2019;27(3):384-388. doi:10.1016/j.jsps.2018.12.007

Kassahun T, Eshetie T, Gesesew H. Factors associated with glycemic control among adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A cross-sectional survey in Ethiopia Endocrine Disorders. BMC Res Notes. 2016;9(1). doi:10.1186/s13104-016-1896-7

Zhu HT, Yu M, Hu H, He QF, Pan J, Hu RY. Factors associated with glycemic control in community-dwelling elderly individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Zhejiang, China: A cross-sectional study. BMC Endocr Disord. 2019;19(1). doi:10.1186/s12902-019-0384-1

American Diabetes Association. American Diabetes Association: Pharmacologic approaches to glycemic treatment: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2018. Diabetes Care. 2018;41:S73 LP-S85.

Hirst JA, Farmer AJ, Ali R, Roberts NW, Stevens RJ. Quantifying the effect of metformin treatment and dose on glycemic control. Diabetes Care. 2012;35(2):446-454. doi:10.2337/dc11-1465

González-Ortiz M, Martínez-Abundis E, Robles-Cervantes JA, Ramos-Zavala MG, Barrera-Durán C, González-Canudas J. Effect of metformin glycinate on glycated hemoglobin A1c concentration and insulin sensitivity in drug-naive adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2012;14(12):1140-1144. doi:10.1089/dia.2012.0097

Lipscombe L, Booth G, Butalia S, et al. Diabetes Canada 2018 Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of Diabetes in Canada: Pharmacologic Glycemic Management of Type 2 Diabetes in Adults. Can J Diabetes. 2018;42(Suppl. 1):S88-S103. doi:10.1016/j.jcjd.2017.10.034

Bösenberg LH, Van Zyl DG. The mechanism of action of oral antidiabetic drugs: A review of recent literature. J Endocrinol Metab Diabetes South Africa. 2008;13(3):80-89. doi:10.1080/22201009.2008.10872177

Hirst JA, Farmer AJ, Dyar A, Lung TWC, Stevens RJ. Estimating the effect of sulfonylurea on HbA1c in diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetologia. 2013;56(5):973-984. doi:10.1007/s00125-013-2856-6

Rao AD, Kuhadiya N, Reynolds K, Fonseca VA. Is the combination of sulfonylureas and metformin associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease or all- cause mortality? Diabetes Care. 2008;31(8):1672-1678. doi:10.2337/dc08-0167

Moon MK, Hur KY, Ko SH, et al. Combination therapy of oral hypoglycemic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Korean J Intern Med. 2017;32(6):974-983. doi:10.3904/kjim.2017.354

Quartuccio M, Buta B, Kalyani RR. Comparative Effectiveness for Glycemic Control in Older Adults with Diabetes. Curr Geriatr Reports. 2017;6(3):175-186. doi:10.1007/s13670-017-0215-z

Du YF, Ou HY, Beverly EA, Chiu CJ. Achieving glycemic control in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes: A critical comparison of current options. Clin Interv Aging. 2014;9:1963-1980. doi:10.2147/CIA.S53482

Haghighatpanah M, Sasan A, Nejad M, Haghighatpanah M, Thunga G, Mallayasamy S. Factors that Correlate with Poor Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Complications. Osong Public Heal Res Perspect. 2018;9(4):167-174. doi:10.24171/j.phrp.2018.9.4.05

Afroz A, Ali L, Karim MN, et al. Glycaemic Control for People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bangladesh - An urgent need for optimization of management plan. Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):1-10. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-46766-9

Andayani TM, Izham M, Ibrahim M, Asdie AH. Comparison of the glycemic control of insulin and triple oral therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Diabetes Endocrinol. 2010;1(2):13-18. Accessed September 5, 2020.

Gorska-Ciebiada M, Masierek M, Ciebiada M. Improved insulin injection technique, treatment satisfaction and glycemic control: Results from a large cohort education study. J Clin Transl Endocrinol. 2020;19. doi:10.1016/j.jcte.2020.100217


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1290 | views : 1543


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 JURNAL MANAJEMEN DAN PELAYANAN FARMASI (Journal of Management and Pharmacy Practice)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

©Jurnal Manajemen dan Pelayanan Farmasi
Faculty of Pharmacy
Universitas Gadjah Mada
Creative Commons License
View My Stats