Muhamad Reza Utama(1*), Deny Yuliawan(2), Yoyo Suhoyo(3), Widyandana Doni(4)

(1) Medical Education Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surabaya, Surabaya - INDONESIA
(2) Master in Medical and Health Professions Education, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta – INDONESIA
(3) Department of Medical Education and Bioethics, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta – INDONESIA
(4) Department of Medical Education and Bioethics, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta – INDONESIA
(*) Corresponding Author


Background: Facebook has been acknowledged as an alternative media in supporting traditional learning activities. However, its potential in enhancing students’ cognitive engagement on flipped-classroom’ activities is still not much known. This study aims to measure undergraduate medical students’ cognitive engagement changes after joining an ocular trauma flipped-classroom’ Facebook group.

Methods: This pre-experimental study was involving 45 third-year undergraduate medical students of Muhammadiyah Surabaya' University who were joining the ocular trauma flipped-classroom' Facebook group. Three cognitive engagement variables were measured before students were joining the group and after the flipped-classroom’ face to face session ended. Finally, metrics data of the group members’ activities, which had been collected using Facebook Insight, used to shown changes between the active and passive user.

Results: All users’ (n = 45) cognitive engagement were rising significantly after join the Facebook group (motivation, p = 0,000; self-directed learning readiness, p = 0,000; knowledge towards ocular trauma topic, p = 0,000). Increase in average active user knowledge was 11.09 points higher than passive users. Self-efficacy aspect of the students’ learning motivation and self-management aspects of the students’ self-directed learning readiness were the most increased sub-components.

Conclusion: Facebook group has the potential to improve students’ cognitive engagement on ocular trauma’ flipped classroom.




Facebook, social media, undergraduate medical students, flipped-classroom, self-regulated learning

Full Text:



  1. Succar T, Grigg J, Beaver HA, Lee AG. A systematic review of best practices in teaching ophthalmology to medical students. Surv Ophthalmol 2016; 61: 83–94.
  2. Tang F, Chen C, Zhu Y, Zuo C, Zhong Y, Wang N et al. Comparison between flipped classroom and lecture-based classroom in ophthalmology clerkship. Med Educ Online 2017; 22: 1395679.
  3. Lin Y, Zhu Y, Chen C, Wang W, Chen T, Li T et al. Facing the challenges in ophthalmology clerkship teaching: Is flipped classroom the answer? PLoS One 2017; 12: 1–14.
  4. Akçayır G, Akçayır M. The flipped classroom: A review of its advantages and challenges. Comput Educ 2018; 126: 334–45.
  5. Schindler LA, Burkholder GJ, Morad OA, Marsh C. Computer-based technology and student engagement: a critical review of the literature. Int J Educ Technol High Educ 2017; 14. doi:10.1186/s41239-017-0063-0.
  6. Rashid T, Asghar HM. Technology use, self-directed learning, student engagement and academic performance: Examining the interrelations. Comput Human Behav 2016; 63: 604–612.
  7. Niu L. Using Facebook for Academic Purposes: Current Literature and Directions for Future Research. J Educ Comput Res 2019; 56: 1384–1406.
  8. Cartledge P, Miller M, Phillips B. The use of social-networking sites in medical education. Med Teach 2013; 35: 847–57.
  9. Merrienboer JJG van, Kirschner PA. Ten steps to complex learning : a systematic approach to four-component instructional design. 3rd ed. Routledge: New York, 2018.
  10. Chan WSY, Leung AYM. Use of social network sites for communication among health professionals: Systematic review. J Med Internet Res 2018; 20: 1–12.
  11. Cheston CC, Flickinger TE, Chisolm MS. Social media use in medical education: A systematic review. Acad Med 2013; 88: 893–901.
  12. Doleck T, Lajoie S. Social networking and academic performance: A review. Educ Inf Technol 2018; 23: 435–65.
  13. Fredricks JA, Blumenfeld PC, Paris AH. School Engagement: Potential of the Concept, State of the Evidence. Rev Educ Res 2004; 74: 59–109.
  14. Pintrich PR, Smith DA., Garcia T, McKeachie WJ. A Manual for the use of the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire 9MSLQ). 1991. doi:10.5901/mjss.2015.v6n1p156.
  15. Suhoyo Y. Perbandingan efektifitas antara Computer Based Learning (CBL) dan kuliah sebagai metode pengajaran prinsip dasar bioetika pada mahasiswa baru Fakultas Kedokteran UGM. 2008.
  16. Nyambe H, Harsono, Rahayu GR. Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi self directed learning readiness pada mahasiswa tahun pertama , kedua dan ketiga di fakultas kedokteran universitas Hasanuddin dalam PBL. J Pendidik Kedokt Indones 2016; 5: 67–77.
  17. Foon K, Kwan C. Flipped classroom improves student learning in health professions education: a meta-analysis. BMC Med Educ 2018; 18: 38.
  18. Pickering JD, Bickerdike SR. Medical student use of Facebook to support preparation for anatomy assessments. Anat Sci Educ 2017; 10: 205–14.
  19. Cook DA, Artino AR. Motivation to learn: an overview of contemporary theories. Med Educ 2016; 50: 997–1014.
  20. Panadero E. A review of self-regulated learning: Six models and four directions for research. Front Psychol 2017; 8: 1–28.
  21. Clark, R. C., & Mayer RE. E-learning and the science of instruction: Proven guidelines for consumer and designer of multimedia learning. 4th ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc: New Jersey; 2016.
  22. Molnar KK. What effect does flipping the classroom have on undergraduate student perceptions and grades? Educ Inf Technol 2017; 22: 2741–65.
  23. Kohan N, Soltani Arabshahi K, Mojtahedzadeh R, Abbaszadeh A, Rakhshani T, Emami A. Self- directed learning barriers in a virtual environment: a qualitative study. J Adv Med Educ Prof 2017; 5: 116–23.
  24. D’Souza K, Henningham L, Zou R, Huang J, O’Sullivan E, Last J et al. Attitudes of Health Professional Educators Toward the Use of Social Media as a Teaching Tool: Global Cross-Sectional Study. JMIR Med Educ 2017; 3: e13.
  25. Azevedo R, Moos DC, Greene JA, Winters FI, Cromley JG. Why is externally-facilitated regulated learning more effective than self-regulated learning with hypermedia? Educ Technol Res Dev 2008; 56: 45–72.
  26. Azevedo R, Cromley JG. Does training on self-regulated learning facilitate students’ learning with hypermedia? J Educ Psychol 2004; 96: 523–35.
  27. Zimmerman BJ, Schunk DH. Self-Regulated Learning and Academic Achievement: Theoretical perspectives. 2nd ed. Taylor & Francis e-Library; 2008.
  28. Saadawi GME, Azevedo R, Castine M, Payne V, Medvedeva O, Tseytlin E et al. Factors affecting feeling-of-knowing in a medical intelligent tutoring system: The role of immediate feedback as a metacognitive scaffold. Adv Heal Sci Educ 2010; 15: 9–30.
  29. Jin J, Bridges SM. Educational technologies in problem-based learning in health sciences education: A systematic review. J Med Internet Res 2014; 16: 1–13.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jpki.46845

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1919 | views : 1747


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Muhamad Reza Utama, Deny Yuliawan, Yoyo Suhoyo, Widyandana

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Pendidikan Kedokteran Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Medical Education) indexed by: