Yopi Simargi(1*), Steven Alvianto(2)

(1) Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia
(2) Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


Background: Patient safety is a global problem and patient safety education for medical students is needed to improve the quality of health services. This study aimed to determine the mean difference of perception on nine patient safety key factors between preclinical students and clinical students.

Methods: This observational analytic cross-sectional study was conducted on preclinical students and clinical students at the School of Medicine and Health Sciences of Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia (AJCUI) in the academic year 2019/2020, randomly drawn in each batch. The research data was collected using the Attitude to Patient Safety Questionnaire -III (APSQ-III) with 7 Likert scales. Data analysis using independent t-test.

Results: From 389 students, significant mean differences of patient safety perception between preclinical students and clinical were found for five key factors: PS training received (p = 0.000), Error reporting confidence (p = 0.000), Working hours as an error cause (p = 0.000), Team functioning (p = 0.001), and Patient involvement in reducing error (p = 0.000).

Conclusion: Medical students had positive perceptions of patient safety. However, there were still some significant different perceptions between clinical and preclinical students, which indicated the need for patient safety education integration in the medical education curriculum.


ASPQ-III, Clinical Students, Patient Safety, Perception, Preclinical Students

Full Text:



1. Li G, Tao H, Liao J, Tang J, Peng F, Shu Q, et al. Patient safety education among chinese medical undergraduates: An empirical study. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2016 Oct 1;36(5):780–4.

2. Mulyana DS. Analisis Penyebab Insiden Keselamatan Pasien oleh Perawat di Unit Rawat Inap Rumah Sakit X Jakarta. 2013;184.

3. Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Panduan Nasional Keselamatan Pasien Rumah Sakit (Patient Safety). Jakarta. 2006.

4. Konsil Kedokteran Indonesia. Standar Kompetensi Dokter Indonesia Edisi Kedua. Jakarta. 2012.

5. Shah N, Jawaid M, Shah N, Ali SM. Patient safety: Perceptions of Medical Students of Dow Medical College, Karachi. J Pak Med Assoc. 2015;65(12):6.

6. Kutaimy R, Zhang L, Blok D, Kelly R, Kovacevic N, Levoska M, et al. Integrating patient safety education into early medical education utilizing cadaver, sponges, and an inter-professional team. BMC Med Educ. 2018 Sep 18;18(1):215.

7. Hidayah, RN. Is patient safety at the heart of medical education in Indonesia? Reflection on the impact of the national examination. Jurnal Pendidikan Kedokteran Indonesia: The Indonesian Journal of Medical Education. 2019.

8. Leung G, Ang S, Lau T, Neo H, Patil N, Ti L. Patient safety culture among medical students in Singapore and Hong Kong. Singapore Med J. 2013 Sep;54(9):501–5.

9. Walton M, Woodward H, Van Staalduinen S, Lemer C, Greaves F, Noble D, et al. The WHO patient safety curriculum guide for medical schools. BMJ Qual Saf. 2010 Dec 1;19(6):542–6.

10. Irene I, Soedibyo S, Satari HI. Pengalaman Klinik Mahasiswa Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Indonesia Tingkat V di Departemen Ilmu Kesehatan Anak Rumah Sakit Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Jakarta. Sari Pediatri. 2016 Nov 29;10(5):285.

11. Liu H, Li Y, Zhao S, Jiao M, Lu Y, Liu J, et al. Perceptions of patient safety culture among medical students: a cross-sectional investigation in Heilongjiang Province, China. BMJ Open. 2018 Jul;8(7):e020200.

12. Kamran R, Bari A, Khan RA, Al-Eraky M. Patient safety awareness among Undergraduate Medical Students in Pakistani Medical School. Pak J Med Sci. 2018;34(2):305–9.

13. Davis RE, Jacklin R, Sevdalis N, Vincent CA. Patient involvement in patient safety: what factors influence patient participation and engagement? Health Expect Int J Public Particip Health Care Health Policy. 2007 Sep;10(3):259–67.

14. Babiker A, El Husseini M, Al Nemri A, Al Frayh A, Al Juryyan N, Faki MO, et al. Health care professional development: Working as a team to improve patient care. Sudan J Paediatr. 2014;14(2):9–16.

15. Berryman P, Lukes E, Keller SM. Effects of Extended Work Shifts and Shift Work on Patient Safety, Productivity, and Employee Health. AAOHN J. 2009 Dec 1;57(12):497–502.

16. White AA, Gallagher TH, Krauss MJ, Garbutt J, Waterman AD, Dunagan WC, et al. The attitudes and experiences of trainees regarding disclosing medical errors to patients. Acad Med J Assoc Am Med Coll. 2008 Mar;83(3):250–6.

17. Leung GK, Patil NG. Patient safety in the undergraduate curriculum: medical students’ perception. Hong Kong Med J. 2010; 16:101-5

18. Almaramhy H, Al-Shobaili H, El-Hadary K, Dandash K. Knowledge and Attitude Towards Patient Safety Among a Group of Undergraduate Medical Students in Saudi Arabia. Int J Health Sci. 2011 Jan;5(1):59–67.

19. Nie Y, Li L, Duan Y, Chen P, Barraclough BH, Zhang M, et al. Patient safety education for undergraduate medical students: a systematic review. BMC Med Educ. 2011 Jun 14;11:33.

20. WHO. Panduan Kurikulum Keselamatan Pasien. Edisi Multi-Profesional. 2015.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 745 | views : 710


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Yopi Simargi, Steven Alvianto

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Pendidikan Kedokteran Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Medical Education) indexed by: