FACTORS AFFECTING MEDICAL STUDENTS’ STRESS DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

https://doi.org/10.22146/jpki.77961

Claudia Felicia Limanda(1*), Susy Purnawati(2), Luh Made Indah Sri Handari Adiputra(3), Ketut Tirtayasa(4)

(1) Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University, Denpasar – INDONESIA
(2) Department of Physiology, Udayana University, Denpasar – INDONESIA
(3) Department of Physiology, Udayana University, Denpasar – INDONESIA
(4) Department of Physiology, Udayana University, Denpasar – INDONESIA
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Background: Since the emergence of COVID-19 in 2019, Indonesia’s COVID-19 Task Force has implemented distance or online learning in educational sectors, especially in Java and Bali. In its implementation, a certain number of medical students developed a tendency to prefer online learning compared to face-to-face learning without completely understanding its risks. Other factors such as financial barriers, social isolation, limitation of physical activity, change of diet, and anxiety-prone tendencies in COVID-19 pandemic, not much further research has been carried out. This study aims to determine whether medical students’ stress can be aggravated by several factors, namely online learning, financial barriers, social isolation, limitation of physical activity, change of diet, and anxiety-prone tendencies in order to obtain information whether online learning can be applied, even when the pandemic is over.

Methods: Research design used a quantitative approach. Data collection was performed through online questionnaires distributed to 238 medical students selected using simplified random sampling. Data was analysed descriptively and inferentially. Inferential analysis used T-Test and ANOVA Test.

Results: Online learning, financial barriers, social isolation, limitation of physical activity, change of diet, and anxiety-prone tendencies independently and cumulatively elevate medical students’ stress. Cumulatively, independent factors mentioned above have 85% effect in aggravating of medical students’ stress.

Conclusion: Online learning application has to be reconsidered due to additional stress implicated to medical students. In addition, financial barriers, social isolation, limitation of physical activity, change of diet, and anxiety-prone tendencies are important factors in aggravating medical students’ stress.


Keywords


COVID-19; online learning; student’s response; students’ stress

Full Text:

PDF


References

  1. Trend Health. What is stress? Symptoms, causes, and stress management [Internet]. undefined. Available from: https://www.trendhealth.org/what-is-stress-symptoms-causes-and-stress-management/
  2. Abdulghani HM, AlKanhal AA, Mahmoud ES, Ponnamperuma GG, Alfaris EA. Stress and its effects on medical students: A cross-sectional study at a college of medicine in Saudi Arabia. J Health Popul Nutr [Internet]. 2011 Oct; 29(5):516–22. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/22106758/
  3. Wang J, Liu W, Zhang Y, Xie S, Yang B. Perceived stress among Chinese medical students engaging in online learning in light of COVID-19. Psychol Res Behav Manag [Internet]. 2021 May 14; 14:549–62. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34017205/
  4. UCI Health. Why is COVID-19 so dangerous? [Internet]. 2020 Apr 29. Available from: https://www.ucihealth.org/blog/2020/04/why-is-covid19-so-dangerou
  5. Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Peta sebaran COVID-19 di Indonesia [Internet]. 2020 Sept 30. Available from: https://covid19.go.id/id/peta-sebaran
  6. Yasa IGWM. Bali in the Covid-19 pandemic: Population and employment dilemmas. J Bali Membangun Bali [Internet]. 2020 Dec 6; 1(3):143–54. Available from: https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Bali-in-the-Covid-19Pandemic%3A-Population-and-Yasa/5286ced6155a0caa303fc5942c2fed426a29ccc3
  7. Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Indonesia. Kemendikbud terbitkan pedoman penyelenggaraan belajar dari rumah [Internet]. 2020 May 29. Available from: https://covid19.go.id/p/berita/kemendikbud-terbitkan-pedoman-penyelenggaraan-belajar-dari-rumah
  8. Witwiser. Can distance learning replace traditional classes? [Internet]. 2021 Sep 30. Available from: https://witwiser.io/can-distance-learning-replace-traditional-classes/
  9. Fawaz M, Samaha A. E-learning: Depression, anxiety, and stress symptomatology among Lebanese university students during COVID-19 quarantine. Nurs Forum [Internet]. 2021 Jan 1; 56(1):52–7. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33125744/
  10. Elsalem L, Al-Azzam N, Jum’ah AA, Obeidat N, Sindiani AM, Kheirallah KA. Stress and behavioral changes with remote E-exams during the Covid-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional study among undergraduates of medical sciences. Ann Med Surg [Internet]. 2020 Dec 1; 60:271–9. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi. nlm.nih.gov/33163179/
  11. Sifat RI. COVID-19 pandemic: Mental stress, depression, anxiety among the university students in Bangladesh. Int J Soc Psychiatry [Internet]. 2021 Aug 1; 67(5):609–10. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/ 344592625_ COVID-19_pandemic_Mental_stress_depression_anxiety_among_ the_university_students_in_Bangladesh
  12. Shevlin M, McBride O, Murphy J, Miller JG, Hartman TK, Levita L, et al. Anxiety, depression, traumatic stress and COVID-19-related anxiety in the UK general population during the COVID-19 pandemic. BJPsych Open [Internet]. 2020 Nov; 6(6). Available from: /pmc/articles/PMC7573460/
  13. Ponto J. Understanding and evaluating survey research. J Adv Pract Oncol [Internet]. 2015 Mar-Apr; 6(2):168-71. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm. nih.gov/ 26649250/
  14. Blankenship R, Atkinson JK. Understanding and evaluating survey research - PMC [Internet]. 2018 Oct 1. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/ articles/PMC4601897/
  15. Heo W, Cho SH, Lee P. APR Financial stress scale: development and validation of a multidimensional measurement. J Financ Ther [Internet]. 2020 Aug 31; 11(1):1–28. Available from: https://newprairiepress.org/jft/vol11/iss1/2/
  16. Zurlo MC, Cattaneo Della Volta MF, Vallone F. COVID-19 student stress questionnaire: development and validation of a questionnaire to evaluate students’ stressors related to the Coronavirus pandemic lockdown. Front Psychol [Internet]. 2020 Oct 22; 11:2892. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33192888/
  17. Ghafouri S, Abdollahi A, Suksatan W, Chupradit S, Asmundson AJN, Thangavelu L. Psychometric comparison of the Persian Salzburg emotional eating scale and emotional eater questionnaire among Iranian adults. J Eat Disord [Internet]. 2022 Dec 1; 10(1):1–7. Available from: https://jeatdisord.biomedcentral.com/articles/ 10.1186/s40337-022-00541-w
  18. Lee SA. Coronavirus anxiety scale: A brief mental health screener for COVID-19 related anxiety. Death Stud [Internet]. 2020 Jul 2; 44(7):393–401. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32299304/
  19. Ramos-Villagrasa PJ, Barrada JR, Fernández-Del-Río E, Koopmans L. Assessing job performance using brief self-report scales: the case of the individual work performance questionnaire A R T I C L E I N F O. J Work Organ Psychol [Internet]. 2019 Sep 7; 35(3):195–205. Available from: https://doi.org/10.5093/jwop2019a21
  20. Balbalosa JF. Factors affecting mathematics performance of laboratory high school students at Laguna State Polytechnic University Academic Year 2009-2010 [Internet]. 2010. Available from: https://www.bartleby.com/essay/Factors-Affecting-Mathematics-Performance-of-Laboratory-High-PK68TZ4K6YZA
  21. Klein AG, Gerhard-Lehn C, Buchner R, Diestel S, Schermelleh-Engel, K. The detection of heteroscedasticity in regression models for psychological data Psychological Test and Assessment Modelling [Internet]. 2016 Dec; 58(4):567-592. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/311518028_ The_Detection_of_Heteroscedasticity_in_Regression_Models_for_Psychological_Data
  22. Wahyu A, Hermayerni Simanullang R, Studi Ilmu Keperawatan P, Murni Teguh S, Murni Teguh Kampus STIKes Murni Teguh S, Kapten Sihombing Kec Percut Sei Tua J, et al. Student stress due to online learning during the Covid-19 pandemic. J Aisyah J Ilmu Kesehat [Internet]. 2020 Dec 9; 5(2):153–7. Available from: https://aisyah.journalpress.id/index.php/jika/article/view/346
  23. The World Medical Association. WMA Statement on Medical Education [Internet]. 2020 Aug 21. Available from: https://www.wma.net/policies-post/wma-statement-on-medical-education/
  24. UNICEF Indonesia. Socio-Economic Impact of COVID-19 on Households in Indonesia: Three Rounds of Monitoring Surveys [Internet]. 2022 Feb. Available from: https://www.unicef.org/indonesia/reports/socio-economic-impact-covid-19-households-indonesia-three-rounds-monitoring-surveys
  25. Al-Maskari A, Al-Riyami T, Kunjumuhammed SK. Students academic and social concerns during COVID-19 pandemic. Educ Inf Technol [Internet]. 2022 Jan 1; 27(1):1–21. Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10639-021-10592-2
  26. Puccinelli PJ, da Costa TS, Seffrin A, de Lira CAB, Vancini RL, Nikolaidis PT, et al. Reduced level of physical activity during COVID-19 pandemic is associated with depression and anxiety levels: An internet-based survey. BMC Public Health [Internet]. 2021 Dec 1; 21(1):1–11. Available from: https://bmcpublichealth. biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-021-10470-z
  27. Denche-Zamorano Á, Franco-García JM, Carlos-Vivas J, Mendoza-Muñoz M, Pereira-Payo D, Pastor-Cisneros R, et al. Increased risks of mental disorders: Youth with inactive physical activity. Healthc [Internet]. 2022 Jan 26; 10(2):237. Available from: https://www.mdpi.com/2227-9032/10/2/237/htm
  28. John Fisher S, Blaine B. Does depression cause obesity? J Heal Psychol [Internet]. 2008 Nov; 13(8):1190–7. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih. gov/18987092/
  29. Vafiadis D. How excess weight impacts our mental and emotional health [Internet]. 2021 Apr 21. Available from: https://www.ncoa.org/article/how-excess-weight-impacts-our-mental-and-emotional-health
  30. Coulthard H, Sharps M, Cunliffe L, van den Tol A. Eating in the lockdown during the Covid 19 pandemic; self-reported changes in eating behaviour, and associations with BMI, eating style, coping and health anxiety. Appetite [Internet]. 2021 Jun 1; 16:105082. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ 33476651/
  31. AL-Omiri MK, Alzoubi IA, Al Nazeh AA, Alomiri AK, Maswady MN, Lynch E. COVID-19 and personality: A cross-sectional multicenter study of the relationship between personality factors and COVID-19-related impacts, concerns, and behaviors. Front Psychiatry [Internet]. 2021 Feb 26; 12:126. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33716815/
  32. Steckler A, McLeroy KR. The importance of external validity. Am J Public Health [Internet]. 2008 Feb; 98(1):9. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/ publication/5798792_The_Importance_of_External_Validity



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jpki.77961

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 593 | views : 405

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2023 Claudia Felicia Limanda, Susy Purnawati, Luh Made Indah Sri Handari Adiputra, Ketut Tirtayasa

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Pendidikan Kedokteran Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Medical Education) indexed by: