Pencemaran Tanah dan Air Tanah oleh Pestisida dan Cara Menanggulanginya

Rachman Sutanto(1*)

(1) Jurusan Ilmu Tanah Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author


The large increase in the use of modern agricultural chemicals, including pesticides and fertilizers has made agriculture an important non-point source of soil and groundwater contamination. Nitrogen, heavy metals, and organic associated with pesticides are presumably the most common contaminants introduced into the environment by modern agricultural practices. The present and abundance of the chemical contaminants in the soil and underlying groundwater largely depends on their chemical species as well as the various physical, biological and chemical properties of the soil. Understanding these processes and interactions between the contaminants and soil constituents would be useful in identifying effective techniques to restore the soil and groundwater contaminated by modern agricultural practices and others modern society activities. When the level of these contaminants in the soil are such that the quality of the plants, food crops and the groundwater are being compromised, then remedial actions are necessary. Such remediation could include in situ technologies, including bioremediation or phytoremediation combined as well as agronomic-types approaches. The best strategy in reducing soil contamination is to reduce pollution at the source and to use best management practices, such as adopting the most appropriate land use for a given type of soil contamination.


pesticide; contamination; adsorption; bioremediation

Full Text:



Adriano, D.C. & M.A. Elrashidi. 1996. Interaction of Contaminant with Soil Component and Environmental Restoration, p. 667─692. In Etchevers, J.D.B.. A.S. Aguilar, R.E. Nunez, G.G. Alcantar & P.G. Sanchez (eds.), Transaction of the 15th World Congress of Soil Science, Acapulco (Mexico), July 10─16, 1994.

Bollag, J.M. & S.Y. Liu. 1990. Biological Transformation Processes of Pesticides. p. 169─211. In Cheng, H.H.(ed.), Pesticides in the Soil Environment: Processes, Impact, and Modeling. Soil Sci. Soc. Of America, Inc., Maison. Wisconsin. USA.

Brown, K.A. 1980. Phosphotriesterases of Flavobacrerium sp. Soil Biol. Biochem. 12: 105─112.

Filinow, A.B., L.W. Jacobs & M.M. Mortland. 1976. Fate of Polybrominated Biphenyls (PBB’s) in Soils: Retention of Hexabromobiphenyl in Four Michigan Soils. J. Agric. Food Chem. 24: 1201─1204.

Geissman, T. 1977. Principle of Organic Chemistry. Freeman and Company, San Fransisco, California. 315 p.

Helling, C.S., D.G. Dennison & D.D. Kaufman. 1974. Fungicide Movement in Soils. Phytopathology 64: 1091─1100.

Hutchins, S.R., M.B. Tomson & C.H. Ward. 1983. Trace Organic Contamination of Groundwater from a Rapid Infiltration Site: A Laboratory Field Coordination Study. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2: 195─216.

Karns, J.S. 1992. Biotechnology in Bioremediation of Pesticide-Contaminated Sites. Am. Chem: 148─156.

Kirk, T.K., E. Schultz & W.J. Conners. 1978. Influence of Culture Parameters in Lignin Metabolism by Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Arch. Microbial. 117: 227─285.

Leach, L.E., C.G. Enfield & C.C. Harlen. 1980. Summary of Long-Term Infiltration System Studies. U.S. EPA. EPA-600/2-80- 165., Ada, OK. 12 p.

Meyers, P.A. & J.G. Quinn, 1973. Association of Hydrocarbon and Mineral Particles in Saline Solution. Nature 244: 23─24.

Miller, R.M., G.M. Singer & J.D. Rosen. 1988. Sequential Degradation of Chlorophenols by Photolytic and Microbial Treatment. Environ. Sci. Technol. 22: 1215─1219.

Morrill, L.G., B.C. Mahilum & S.H. Mohiuddin, 1982. Organic Compounds in Soils: Sorption, Degradation, and Persistence. Ann. Arbor. Sci. Publ. Ann. Arbor. ML. 684 p.

Norber, A.B. & H. Persson, 1984. Accumulation of heavy metal by Zooglea ramigera. Biotechnol. BioEng. 26: 239─246.

Overcash, M.R. & D.V. Crawford, 1979. Design of Land Treatment Systems for Industrial Wastes-Theory and Practice. Ann Arbor Sci. PubI., Ann Arbor, ML. 684 p.

Russell, J.D., M.I. Cruz & J.L. White. 1968. The Adsorption of 3-Amino-Triazole by Montmorillontte. i. Agric. Food Chem. 16: 21─24.

Speedie, M.K., B.M. Pogell & M.J. MacDonald. 1988. The Actinomycetes. 20: 315─335.

Weber, J.B. 1970. Mechanisms of Adsorption of s-triazins by Clay Colloids and Factors Affecting Plant Availability. Residue Rev. 132: 93─120.

Winterlin, W., J.N. Seiber & A. Craigmill. 1989. Degradation of Pesticide Waste Taken from a Highly Contaminanted Soil Evaporation Pit in California (USA). Arch. Environ. Contram. Toxicol. 18: 734─747.

Yong. R.N., A. Mohamed & B.P. Warkentin. 1992. Wastes and Contaminant, p. 48─88. In Yong, R.N. (ed.). Principles of Contaminant Transport in Soils. Elsevier, Amsterdam.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 35650 | views : 41714


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2001 Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Perlindungan Tanaman Indonesia ISSN 1410-1637 (print)ISSN 2548-4788 (online) is published by the Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada, in collaboration with Indonesian Entomological Society (Perhimpunan Entomologi Indonesia, PEI) and Indonesian Phytopathological Society (Perhimpunan Fitopatologi Indonesia, PFI). The content of this website is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.  

View website statistics