Lemwang Chuhwanglim(1*), Yahya Wijaya(2), Mark Woodward(3)

(1) Inter-Religious Studies Graduate School of Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Faculty of Theology, Duta Wacana Christian University, Indonesia
(3) Faculty of Anthropology, Arizona State University, United States
(*) Corresponding Author


Religion in society has been a complex study for both academic and non-academic disciplines. Defining
religion had become an issue since the beginning of world religions. This issue will continue to remain in
society, unless world religions avoid imposed definition of religion from the world religions’ perspective.
This research aims to study about how religion had been defined by many scholars theologically, politically,
culturally, contextually, and how such different approaches never reach the consensus of understanding
toward defining religion. In many cases, the definition of religion was imposed by scholars who have
power of knowledge and intellectual in the discipline of world religions. The power of defining religion
from the world religions’ perspective becomes challenging for people, such as indigenous people who
continue to practice their religion from the origin of their fore-parents until today. Religion defined by
world religions from the transcendental perspective had led to discrimination against other indigenous
religions in various parts of the world, such as the Naga people in India.


Christianity; Indigenous religion; Missionaries; Naga Society; World religions.

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