Turn-Taking Strategies Produced by Male and Female Presenters in American TV Shows


Nur Trihandayani Rivai(1*)

(1) Universitas Negeri Malang
(*) Corresponding Author


This study aims at examining the turn-taking strategies performed by male presenter, Jimmy Kimmel, and female presenter, Ellen DeGeneres, in two American TV talk shows. The data were analyzed using Stenstrom theory (1994) for the turn-taking strategies performed by both presenters. The findings revealed the following. (1) As the representation of male presenters, in conversation with male guests, Jimmy performed most of the strategies such as hesitant start, clean start, uptakes, links, alert, filled pause/ verbal fillers, silent pause, lexical repetition, a new start prompting and appealing. However, he did not apply metacomment and giving up strategy. Furthermore, in conversation with female guests, he used all the strategies, except hesitant start, metacomment, lexical repetition, a new start, and giving up strategy. (2) As the representation of female presenters, Ellen did not use metacomment, silent pause, and giving up strategies in her conversation with male guests. On the other hand, in conversation with female guests, she used all the strategies, except metacomment strategy. (3) This study also revealed that male presenters interrupted more often to female guests than to male guests, which supports the theory proposed by Zimmerman and West (1975).


gender; turn-taking; turn-taking in gender; Stenstrom theory

Full Text:

228-237 PDF


Abdelrahim, N. M. (2006). Turn taking behavior and gender references in speech: A case study of a group of educated Sudanese. (Unpublished thesis). University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan.

Beattie, G. W. (1982). Turn-taking and interruption in political interviews: Margaret Thatcher and Jim Callaghan compared and contrasted. Semiotica, 39 (1-2), 93-114.

Berry, A. (1994). Spanish and American turn-taking styles: A comparative study. Pragmatics and Language Learning, monograph series, 5, 180–190.

Coates, J. (2013). Women, men, and language. New York: Routledge.

Drew, P. (2004). Conversation analysis. In K. L. Fitch, & R. E. Sanders (Eds.), Handbook of language and social interaction (pp. 71-102). London: Laurence Erlbaum.

Eakins, B. W., & Eakins. C. (1979). Verbal turn-taking and exchanges in faculty dialogue. In B. L. Dubois & I. Crouch (Eds.), The sociology of the languages of American women (53-62). San Antonio: Trinity University Press.

Eckert, P. & McConnell-Ginet, S. (2003). Language and gender. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Elbytra, B. (2014). Conversational analysis of language used by genders in Will Smith’s “Hitch” movie. Language Horizon 2(1), 1-8.

Faizah, I. (2015). A study of interruption and overlap in male-female conversation in the talk show Mata Najwa. (Unpublished Thesis). Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Bandung, Indonesia.

Fishman, P. M. (1983). Interaction: the work women do. In B. Thorne, C. Kramarae, & N. Henley (Eds), Language, gender and society (pp. 89-101). London: Newbury House.

Ghilzai, S. A. & Baloch, M. (2016). Conversational analysis of turn-taking behavior and gender references in multimodal conversation. Perspectives in Language, Linguistics and Media 1, 1-13.

Gunnarsson, B. (1997). Women and men in the academic discourse community. In K. Helga, & R. Wodak (Eds.), Communicating gender in context (pp. 219–248). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Heath, C. and Luff, P. (1993). Explicating face-to-face interaction. In N. Gilbert (Ed.), Researching social life (pp. 306-326). London: Sage.

Herring, S., Johnson, D. A. & DiBenedetto, T. (1995). “This discussion is going too far!”: Male resistance to female participation on the Internet. In K. Hall & M. Bucholtz (Eds.), Gender articulated: Language and the socially constructed self (pp. 67–96). New York: Routledge.

Holmes, J. (1995). Women, men and politeness. London: Longman.

Hutchby, I. (2006). Media talk: Conversation analysis and the study of broadcasting. Glasgow: Open University Press.

Laskowski, K., Ostendorf, M., & Schultz, T. (2008). Modeling vocal interaction for text-independent participant characterization in multi-party conversation. Proceedings of the 9th SIGdial workshop on discourse and dialogue, 148–155.

Leet-Pellegrini, H. M. (1980). Conversational dominance as a function of gender and expertise. In H. Giles, W. P. Robinson & P. M. Smith (Eds.), Language: Social Psychological Perspectives (pp. 97–104). Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Liddicoat, A. J. (2007). An Introduction to Conversation Analysis. London: Continuum.

Maghrida, A. C. (2016). A study on gender based turn taking in the conversation of the main characters in Before Midnight Film. (Unpublished Thesis). Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia.

Mulac, A. Wiemann, J. M., Widenmann, S. J. & Gibson, T. W. (1988). Male/female language differences and effects in same-sex and mixed-sex dyads: the gender linked language effect, Communication Monographs 55(4): 315–335.

Sacks, H., Schegloff, E. A., & Jefferson, G. (1974). A symplest Sistematics for the organization of turn taking for conversation. Language, 50, pp. 696-735.

Schick Case, S. (1988). Cultural differences, not deficiencies: an analysis of managerial women’s language. In S. Rose & L. Lawood (Eds.), Women’s careers: Pathways and pitfalls (pp. 41–63). New York: Praeger.

Strenstrom, A. B. (1994). An introduction to spoken interaction. London: Longman. Swacker, M. (1975). The sex of the speaker as a sociolinguistic variable. In B. Thorne & N. Henley (Eds.), Language and sex (pp. 76–83). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

Tannen, Deborah. (1992). You just don’t understand: women and men in conversation. London: Virago.

West, C. (1998). When the doctor is a ‘lady’: power, status and gender in physician–patient encounters. In J. Coates (Ed.), Language and gender: A reader (pp. 396–412). Oxford: Blackwell.

Zimmerman, D. and West, C. (1975) Sex roles interruptions and silences in conversations. In B. Thorne & N. Henley (Eds.), Language and Sex: Difference and Dominance. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/lexicon.v6i2.54480

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 4647 | views : 3059


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Nur Trihandayani Rivai

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Lexicon Office

English Department
Faculty of Cultural Sciences,
Universitas Gadjah Mada
Soegondo Building, 3rd Floor, Room 306
Yogyakarta, Indonesia 55281
Telephone: +62 274 513096
Email: lexicon.fib@ugm.ac.id

ISSN: 2746-2668 (Online)

Web Analytics View Stats

Creative Commons License
LEXICON is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Lexicon is indexed in


About UsSubmissionIssuePoliciesReview