Asal-Usul Pemikiran tentang Sekularisme di Abad Pertengahan

https://doi.org/10.22146/jf.73767

Martin Suryajaya(1*)

(1) Institut Kesenian Jakarta
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Artikel ini melacak asal-usul wacana sekularisme dalam filsafat politik Abad Pertengahan, khususnya dalam pemikiran Dante Alighieri, Marsilius Padua dan William Ockham. Pertanyaan pokok yang membimbing kajian ini adalah: sejauh mana benih pemikiran mengenai sekularisme sudah muncul pada masa Abad Pertengahan? Metode yang digunakan untuk menjawab pertanyaan tersebut adalah telaah filosofis atas konflik antara kuasa temporal dan spiritual yang menjadi konteks perdebatan mengenai kedudukan penguasa sekuler dalam hubungannya dengan otoritas keagamaan tertinggi. Dengan memeriksa respons terhadap kekuasaan mutlak gereja, terlihat adanya sejumlah alternatif berbeda yang salah satunya adalah sekularisme. Melalui penelusuran itu ditemukan bahwa sekalipun terdapat benih-benih sekularisme dalam pemikiran William Ockham, ia tetap mengandaikan paradigma religius tentang dunia yang mengasalkan sumber pembagian kewenangan temporal dan spiritual pada Tuhan, sedangkan Dante dan Marsilius Padua justru mengklaim otoritas religius dikandung dalam otoritas sekuler. Pemisahan gereja dari negara masih dilakukan dalam pengandaian penyelenggaraan ilahi di dunia. Pengandaian inilah yang membedakannya dari sekularisme modern.


Keywords


Sekularisme, Kuasa Temporal, Kuasa Spiritual, Caesaropapisme, Sekularitas Tipe 1.

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References

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jf.73767

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