Iqbal Humanism and Human Rights

Mustofa Anshori Lidinillah(1*), Mukhtasar Syamsuddin(2), Arqom Kuswanjono(3)

(1) Faculty of Philosophy, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Faculty of Philosophy, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(3) Faculty of Philosophy, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(*) Corresponding Author


Contrasting religion with human rights is a critical response that is unproductive because basically the relationship between religion and human rights is ambivalent. Meanwhile, freedom of religion is understood as part of human rights, but in reality, religious practices emerge which result in violations of human rights. This research wants to answer the question of how to bridge the relationship between religion and human rights by taking the case of Iqbal's concept of humanism, "How does Iqbal's humanism reconcile religion and human rights?" This study uses the hermeneutic-philosophical method by applying the following methodical steps: interpretation, analysis-synthesis, internal coherence, description, and heuristics. The results of the research show that Iqbal's humanism as a framing that reconciles religion and human rights based on a reciprocal relationship between religion and humanity. Tauhid as a working idea and the main spiritual basis for building a civilization with a human perspective contains values that are in accordance with the principles of human rights. The development of a new civilization with human insight must be pursued intellectually and vitally. Religion is a mode of human development as long as it is not accepted dogmatically. Therefore, Iqbal's humanism has a very strong relevance in efforts to uphold the principles of human rights in people's lives.



Iqbal Humanism, Human Rights, Tawhid, Intellectual and Vital Ways

Full Text:



Anjum, Z. H. (2003). Whose Iqbal Ours or Theirs?. Iqbal Review Journal of the Iqbal Academy, 44, 152–158.

Asplund, K. D., Marzuki, S., & Riyadi, E. (eds.). (2008). Hukum Hak Asasi Manusia. Yogyakarta: PUSHAM UII.

Azzam, A. W. (1985). Filsafat dan Puisi Iqbal. Iqbal: Siratuh wal Falsafatuh wa Syi'ruhani (trans. by Ahmad Rofi 'Usman). Jakarta: Pustaka.

Danusiri. (1996). Epistemologi dalam Tasawuf Iqbal. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Donnelly, J. (2013). Universal Human Rights in Theory and Practice (3rd ed). Ithaca and London: Cornel University Press.

Durrani, S. A. (1990). Iqbal: His Life and Work. Iqbal Review Journal of the Iqbal Academy, 31, 89–113.

Gerung, R. (2006). Pengantar. Hak Asasi Manusia, Teori, Hukum, dan Kasus. Jakarta: Filsafat UI Press.

Haas, M. (2014). International Human Rights a Comprehensive Introduction (2nd. ed.). Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.

Haider, S. (1968). Iqbal and His Philosophy. Iqbal Review Journal of the Iqbal Academy, 9, 4–33.

Hansungule. (2010). An Introduction to International Human Rights Law. Leiden: Koninklijke Brill NV.

Hardiman, F. B. (2011). Hak-hak Asasi Manusia: Polemik Agama dan Kebudayaan. Kanisius: Yogyakarta.

Hassan, R. (2005). An Iqbal Primer an Introduction to Iqbal’s Philosophy. Lahore: Iqbal Academy Pakistan.

Hayden, P. (2001). The Philosophy of Human Rights. USA: Paragon House.

Hidayatullah, S. (2014). Epistemologi Pemikiran Sir Muhammad Iqbal. Jurnal Filsafat, 24 (1), 94-117.

Iqbal, M. (2012). The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam. Stanford: Stanford University Press in Collaboration with Iqbal Academy Pakistan.

Izzah, L. (2021). Wacana Hak Asasi Manusia dalam Filsafat Pendidikan Islam dan Barat. Al’Adalah, 24 (1), 45–53.

Lidinillah, M. A. (2005). Agama dan Aktualisasi Diri dalam Perspektif Filsafat Muhammad Iqbal. Yogyakarta: Penerbitan Filsafat UGM.

Maarif, A. S. (2002). Prolog. Rekonstruksi Pemikiran Agama dalam Islam. Muhidin M. Dahlan (ed.). Yogyakarta: Jalasutra.

Petersen, M. J. (2017). Islam and Human Rights: Clash or Compatibility?. Diakses pada 12 September 2019.

Masykur, M. R. (2018). Pembaharuan Islam Di Asia Selatan: Pemikiran Muhammad Iqbal. Jurnal Al-Makrifat, 3 (1), 1-14.

May, L. S. (1978). Iqbal, The Humanist. Iqbal Review Journal of the Iqbal Academy, 19, 24-34.

Monib, M., & Bahrawi, I. (2011). Islam dan Hak Asasi Manusia dalam Pandangan Nurcholish Madjid. Jakarta: Gramedia.

Mustansir, M. (2000). Iqbal Vision of New World. Iqbal Review Journal of The Iqbal Academy, 41, 42-44.

Regus, M. (2017). Islam and Human Rights: A Critical Intersection. Retrieved from

Salam, G. (2017). Are Human Rights Compatible with Islamic Values? Retrieved from

Saraswati, L. G., et al. (2006). Hak Asasi Manusia, Teori, Hukum, dan Kasus. Jakarta: Filsafat UI Press.

Sommerville, D. (2008). The Complete Illustrated History of World War Two: An Authoritative Account of the Deadliest Conflict in Human History with Analysis of Decisive Encounters and Landmark Engagements. Singapura: Lorenz Book.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 653 | views : 1052


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Jurnal Filsafat

Jurnal Filsafat Indexed by:

Google ScholarSinta (Science and Technology Index)

Jurnal Filsafat ISSN 0853-1870 (print), ISSN 2528-6811 (online)