Infection, cure and egg reduction rates of soil-transmitted helminth infections after anthelminthic drugs treatment among school children in Kokap, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

https://doi.org/10.19106/JMedSci004804201605

Fitria Siwi Nur Rochmah(1*), Elsa Herdiana Murhandarwati(2), Sri Sumarni(3)

(1) Master Program in Basic Medical Science and Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Department Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Islam Indonesia
(3) Department Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


The prevalence of helminthiasis on primary school children in Indonesia is high, around 40-
60%. This study aims to assess the impact of treatment and predictors of soil-transmitted
helminth (STH) infections at 3 months after treatment. Population of this study was
students of a primary school in Kokap (Sekolah Dasar Negeri/SDN Gunung Agung), Kulon
Progo, Yogyakarta, determined based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria (n = 65).
Stool samples examined using Kato Katz method. Students infected with STH were given
appropriate treatment and stool samples were collected again to determine cure rate (CR)
and egg reduction rate (ERR) at 2 week post-treatment and at 3 months post-treatment
to determine incidence of re-infection, new infection or failed treatment. Information
on personal hygiene and sanitation were collected by interview with students of SDN
Gunung Agung. Treatment with pyrantel pamoat was effective against hookworm and
Ascaris lumbricoides with CR of 100% and ERR of 100% while treatment with albendazol
was ineffective against Trichuris trichiura (CR = 12.8%, ERR = 62.4%) though the
Wilcoxon test for T. trichiura showed a significant reduction egg count (epg) before and
2 week after treatment (p<0.05). The overall infection rate at 3 months after treatment
was 35.4% with cases of re-infection, new infection and untreated cases. This result was
not significantly different with infection rate before treatment (p>0.05). The existence of
double infection before treatment showed p value <0.05 (OR = 2) with the prevalence of
STH infections 3 months after treatment. Bivariate analysis between personal hygiene and
environmental sanitation with the prevalence of STH infections 3 months after treatment
was obtained p value >0.05. Presence of re-infection, new infection and untreated cases
confirms that an integrated approach is necessary to control STH infection in Kokap,
Kulon Progo, Yogyakarta.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.19106/JMedSci004804201605

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