Comparison of Bcl-xL protein expression in placental trophoblast cells between pregnancy complicated by severe preeclampsia and normotensive pregnancy



Diah Rumekti Hadiati(1*), Arsi Palupi(2), Mohammad Hakimi(3), Sofia Mubarika Haryana(4),

(1) Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(2) Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(3) Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(4) Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Background: Preeclampsia is one of the main causes of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. The pathogenesis of preeclampsia remains unclear but it is believed that the failure of spiral arteries remodeling will eventually leads to placental hypoxia. In pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia, trophoblast apoptosis is considered to be excessive. Although this hypothesis is still under study, it is believed that regulation of apoptosis in trophoblast cells plays a key role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. The mechanism of molecular apoptosis in human is very complicated and involves many signaling molecules, one of them is Bcl-2 protein. Bcl-2 protein group consists of proapoptosis (Bax) protein and apoptosis inhibitor (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL) protein.

Objective: To compare the expression of Bcl-xL protein in placental trophoblast cells between pregnancy complicated by severe preeclampsia and normotensive pregnancy.

Methods: The design of this study was cross sectional design. The population were patients with severe preeclampsia and normotensive patients which were treated in Dr. Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia from October 2011 until March 2012. Placenta samples were obtained from 43 patients with pregnancy complicated by severe preeclampsia and 38 patients with normotensive pregnancy. Bcl-xL protein expression was observed using immunohistochemistry technique. Statistical analysis was conducted using independent t-test (p<0.05), bivariate analysis using chi-square test, and multivariate analysis using logistic regression.

Results: There was significant difference in Bcl-xL protein expression in trophoblast cells between pregnancy complicated by severe preeclamptic group (1,29 ± 0,12) compared to normotensive group (1,71 ± 0,14) with p=0.00. Multivariate analysis using logistic regression showed that diagnosis of severe preeclampsia had a statistically significant role in Bcl-xL protein expression with p= 0.000.

Conclusion: Expression of Bcl-xL protein is lower in pregnancy complicated by severe preeclampsia compared to normotensive pregnancy.

Keywords


trophoblast; severe preeclampsia; Bcl-xL protein; apoptosis



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