Antenatal and postnatal risk factors of obesity in children age 2-5 years old in Yogyakarta District, Indonesia

I Ketut Rutin Pastadita Sunartini Yudha Patria(1*)

(*) Corresponding Author


Obesity and overweight have become a health issue throughout the world, with a dramatic
increase in prevalence each year. An obese child is thought to be adorable, but parents are not
aware of the health risk it holds. Preventive measures by decreasing the risk factors for obesity
are more effective than treating the problem. The aim of this study was to identify the risk
factors of obesity in antenatal and postnatal period in children in Yogyakarta District. This was
an observational study with a case control design. Criteria of obesity were defined according to
WHO 2006 growth chart. Subjects were children age 2 to 5 years old that were enrolled in
playgroups in the Yogyakarta Distric with a targeted sample size of 41 children. Parents of
children that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were given questionnaires to fill out. The
results were analyzed using bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression. Thirty four
obese children and 34 non obese children (as control) were explored for the obesity risk factors.
Prematurity/gestational age (OR=16; 95%CI=3.27-78.28; p=0.001), passive smoking (OR=5.50;
95%CI=1.90-15.96; p=0.001), low birth weight (OR=7.27; 95%CI=1.45-36.47; p=0.008),
eating more than 3 times daily (OR=2.19; 95%CI=1.66-2.89; p=0.007), meals that are high in
lipid (OR=4.18; 95%CI=1.45-12.02; p=0.007) were shown to be risk factors for obesity in
children. Factors such as picky eaters (OR=0.16; 95%CI=1.45-12.02; p=0.002), early introduction
to solid food (OR=0.29; 95%CI=0.10-0.79; p=0.01), exercise (OR=0.25; 95%CI=0.06-0.32;
p=0.04), and watching TV or playing video game under 2 hours daily (OR=0.30; 95%CI=0.09-
0.95; p=0.04) were identified as protective factors against obesity. By using the multivariate
analysis, there were only 2 risk factors for obesity i.e. eating more than 3 times daily and
prematurity/gestational age and there were only 2 protective factors i.e. exercise and introduction
to solid food that remained statistically significant as independent factors influencing obesity in
children aged 2 to 5 years old in the Yogyakarta District.

Keywords: obesity - children age 2 to 5 years old - antenatal - postnatal - risk factors

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