Dynamic myelin regulation as a novel form of neural plasticity

https://doi.org/10.19106/JMedSci005301202107

. Yuliana(1*)

(1) Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Udayana, Bali
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Dynamic changes in myelin could optimize information transmission in neural
circuits and enhance conduction velocity. This review aimed to provide an
understanding of how dynamic myelin plasticity is important in neuronal
activity and how astrocytes have an important role that is not equal in the
peripheral nervous system. Myelin is dynamically regulated by neuronal
activity. It takes part continuously in nervous system plasticity during
development. Newly differentiating oligodendrocytes can create a new myelin
sheath. Mature myelin sheaths can grow again in adults. Oligodendrocytes
interact with astrocytes in the central nervous system through gap junctions.
Astrocytes have an important role as synaptic network integrators; therefore,
decreasing astrocyte numbers will cause a loss of presynaptic plasticity. The
concept considers plasticity as a mechanism that depends on myelination.
Higher brain functions and myelination interplay in the hippocampus and
prefrontal cortex. The mechanism and function of these changes remain
poorly understood. Genetic, neural activity, environment, and axonal activity
might play important roles. Dynamic myelin regulation reveals a new form of
neural plasticity. Myelination is similar to synapse formation and plasticity. It
enables plasticity in the central nervous system and helps improve the learning
process.

Keywords


myelin, plasticity, neural, mechanism

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.19106/JMedSci005301202107

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Journal of the Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) by  Universitas Gadjah Mada is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Based on a work at http://jurnal.ugm.ac.id/bik/.