Literature review of conjunctivitis, conjunctival swab and chloroquine effect in the eyes: a current updates on COVID-19 and ophthalmology



Indra Tri Mahayana(1*), Natalia Christina Angsana(2), Alya Kamila(3), Nisrina Nur Fatiha(4), Devin Zen Sunjaya(5), Winanto Andajana(6), Suhardjo Suhardjo(7)

(1) Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(2) Faculty of Medicine Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(3) Faculty of Medicine Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(4) Faculty of Medicine Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(5) Faculty of Medicine Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(6) Faculty of Medicine Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(7) Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


This overview briefly describes current literature findings in ophthalmology related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that become a worldwide pandemic. It included the current updates related to conjunctivitis that believed as the early sign of COVID-19, the effectiveness of conjunctival swab in detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) compared to naso-or oropharyngeal swab and the long-term side effect of chloroquine use to the eyes.The analysis from four current published literature revealed, overall sensitivity of conjunctivitis was 2.42% (CI 95%: 0.79-5.55) and conjunctival swab was 2.90% (CI 95%: 1.07-6.20). There were no current COVID-19-related literature discussing the side effect of chloroquine to the eyes, however previous literatures revealed there were potential long-term harmful effects of chloroquine treatment for COVID-19 to the eyes.

 


Keywords


conjunctiva; coronavirus; COVID-19; ocular; chloroquine;

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References

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