Yanni Sudiyani(1*), Euis Hermiati(2)

(1) Research Center for Chemistry - Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Kawasan Puspiptek Serpong, 15314, Tangerang
(2) Research and Development Unit for Biomaterials - Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Jl. Raya Bogor Km 46, Cibinong, Bogor 16911
(*) Corresponding Author


Lignocellulosic biomass is a potential alternative source of bioethanol for energy. The lignocellulosics are abundantly available in Indonesia. Most of them are wastes of agriculture, plantation and forestry. Among those wastes, oil palm empty fruit bunch (OP EFB) is one of a potential lignocellulosics to be converted to bioethanol. This EFB, which is wastes in oil palm factories, is quite abundant (around 25 million tons/year) and also has high content of cellulose (41-47%). The conversion of OPEFB to ethanol basically consists of three steps which are pretreatment, hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose to simple sugars (hexoses and pentoses), and fermentation of simple sugars to ethanol. Acid and alkali pretreatments are considered the simplest methods and are potentially could be applied in the next couple of years. However, there are still some problems that have to be overcome to make the methods economically feasible. The high price of cellulose enzyme that is needed in the hydrolysis step is one of factors that cause the cost of EFB conversion is still high. Thus, the search of potential local microbes that could produce cellulase is crucial. Besides that, it is also important to explore fermenting microbes that could ferment six carbon sugars from cellulose as well as five carbon sugars from hemicellulose, so that the conversion of lignocellulosics, particularly EFB, would be more efficient.


OPEFB; lignocellulosics; pretreatment; fermentation; ethanol

Full Text:

Full Text Pdf


[1] Komite Nasional Energi - World Energy Council 2004.

[2] Hermiati, E. and Sukara, E., 2005, Konversi Bahan Berlignoselulosa Menjadi Bioenergi Etanol, Prosiding Seminar Nasional Biomassa Lignoselulosa, 14-21.

[3] Costello, R, and Chum, H., 1998, Biomass, bioenergy and carbon management, in Wichert D, editor, Bioenergy '98: Expanding Bioenergy Partnerships, Madison Omnipress, Wisconsin, USA, 11-17.

[4] Kompas, February 15, 2005.

[5] DiPardo, J., 2000, Outlook for Biomass Ethanol Production and Demand, http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/analysispaper/biomass.html.

[6] http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-the-advantages-and-disadvantages-of-ethanol-fuel.htm

[7] Wilke, D., 1999, Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 52, 2, 135-145.

[8] Licht, F.O., 2009, World Ethanol and Biofuels Report, 7, 18, 365.

[9] Woong, E.D., Razali, A.K., and Kawai S. 2000, Zero Emissions in Palm Oil Industry: Case Study of East Oil Mill Golden Hope Plantation Bhd., Malaysia, Proceeding of the third International Wood Science Symposium, Kyoto, 1-2 November, 2000, 153-156.

[10] Syafwina, Honda, Y., Watanabe, T., and Kuwahara, M., 2002, Wood Res., 89, 19-20.

[11] Hayn, M., Steiner, W., Klinger, R., Steinmüller, H., Sinner, M., and Esterbauer, H., 1993, Basic research and pilot studies on the enzymatic conversion of lignocellulosics, in Saddler JN, editor, Bioconversion of Forest and Agricultural Plant Residues, CAB International, Wallingford, UK, 33-72.

[12] Sun, R.C., Fang, J.M., Mott, L., and Bolton, J., 1999, J. Wood Chem. Technol., 19, 1-2, 167-185.

[13] Badger, P.C., 2002, Ethanol from cellulose: A general review, in J. Janick and A. Whipkey (eds.), Trends in new crops and new uses, ASHS Press., Alexandria, Virginia, US, 17–21.

[14] Rahman, S.H.A., Choudhury, J.P., and Ahmad, A.L., 2006, Biochem. Eng. J., 30, 1, 97-103.

[15] Saha, B.C., Iten, L.B., Cotta, M.A., and Wu, Y.V., 2005, Biotechnol. Progr., 21, 3, 816-822.

[16] Sun, Y., and Cheng, J., 2005, Bioresour. Technol., 96, 14, 1599-1606.

[17] Lloyd, T.A., and Wyman, C.E., 2005, Bioresour. Technol., 96, 18, 1967-1977.

[18] Sudiyani,Y., Alawiyah, S., Waluyo, J., and Hermiati, E., 2008, Dilute Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Saccharification of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber for Ethanol, Proc. of the 4th Indonesian Biotech Conf. (an International forum for Biotechnology), Bogor, 5-7 August, ISBN: 978-979-799-401-3

[19] Sun, Y., and Cheng, J., 2002, Bioresour. Technol., 83, 1, 1-11.

[20] Hamelinck, C.N., van Hooijdonk, G., and Faaij, A.P.C., 2005, Biomass Bioenergy, 28, 384-410.

[21] Mosier, N., Wyman, C., Dale, B., Elander, R., Lee, Y.Y., Holtzapple, M., and Ladisch, M., 2005, Bioresour. Technol., 96, 6, 673-686.

[22] Wyman, C.E., Dale, B., Elander, L., Richard, T.E., Holtzapple, M., Ladisch, M.,and Lee, Y.Y., 2005, Bioresour. Technol., 96, 18, 1959-1966.

[23] Latif, F., Ibrahim, M.R., and Kauser, A.M., 1994, Bioresour. Technol., 50, 2, 107-111.

[24] Umikalsom, S., Ariff, A.B., and Karim, M.I.A., 1998, J. Agric. Food Chem., 46, 3359-3364.

[25] Zhu, S., Wu, Y., Yu, Z., Chen, Q., Wu, G., Yu, F., Wang, C., and Jin, S., 2006, Process Biochem., 94, 3, 437-442.

[26] Zhao, Y., Wang, Y., Zhu, J.Y., Ragauskas, A., and Deng, Y., 2008, Biotechnol. Bioeng., 99, 6, 1320-1328.

[27] Sudiyani,Y. 2009. A Comparison of Chemical Pretreatment Methods for Saccharification of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch fiber, Proc. of the first Int. Seminar on Science and Technology (ISSTEC 2009), Jogjakarta, 24-25 January 2009, ISBN 978-979-19201-0-0.

[28] Holtzapple, M.T., Davison, R.R., Lowery, Jr., L.L., and Granda, C.B., 2004, Methods and Systems for pretreatment and processing of biomass, US Pat. No. 2004/0168960 A1.

[29] Krishna, S.H., and Chowdary, G.V., 2000, J. Agric Food Chem., 48, 5, 1971-1976.

[30] Chen, H., Han, Y., and Xu, J., 2008, Process Biochem., 43, 12, 1462-1466.

[31] Zhu, S., Wu, Y., Yu, Z., Zhang, X., Wang, C., Yu, F., and Jin, S., 2006, Process Biochem., 41, 4, 896-873.

[32] Sudiyani,Y., Fitria, I., Idiyanti, T., Wawan K.H., and Hermiati, E., 2010, J. Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis, 8, 1.

[33] Chandel, A.K., Kapoor, R.K., Singh, A., and Kuhad, R.C., 2007, Bioresour. Technol., 98, 10, 1947-1950.

[34] Duff, S.J.B., and Murray, W.D., 1996, Bioresour. Technol., 55, 1, 1-33.

[35] Hahn-Hägerdal, B., Hallborn, J., Jeppsson, H., Olsson, L., Skoog, K., and Walfridsson, M., 1993, Pentose fermentation to alcohol, in Saddler JN, Editor, Bioconversion of Forest and Agricultural Plant Residues, CAB International, Wallingford, UK, 231-290.

[36] Mc. Millan, J.D., Xylose fermentation to ethanol: a review, Report of NERL/TP-421-4944, January 1993.

[37] Keller, F.A., and Nguyen, Q.A., 2002, Pentose fermentation of normally toxic lignocellulose prehydrolysate with strain of Pichia stipitis yeast using air, US Patent No. 6,498,029.

[38] Ingram, L.O’N., and Zhou, S., 2006, Methods and compositions for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, US Patent No. 7,026,152.

[39] Krishna, S.H., Prasanti, K., Chowdary, G.V., and Ayyanna, C., 1998, Process Biochem., 33 8, 825-830.

[40] Itoh, H., Wada, M., Honda, Y., Kuwahara, M., and Watanabe, T., 2003, J. Biotechnol., 103, 3, 273-280.

[41] Syafwina, Watanabe, T., Honda, Y., Kuwahara, M., and Watanabe, T., 2004, Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of oil palm empty fruit bunch pretreated by white rot fungi for ethanol production, Proc. of the 5th Int. Wood Sci. Simp., 313-316.

[42] Samsuri, M., Prasetya, B., Hermiati, E., Idiyanti, T., Okano, K., Syafwina, Honda, Y., and Watanabe, T., 2005, Pre-treatments for ethanol production from bagasse by Simulataneous Saccharification and fermentation. Proc. of the 6th Int. Wood Science Symp., 288-294.

[43] Palmarola-Adrados, B., Galbe, M., and Zacchi, G., 2005, J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol., 80, 1, 85-91.

[44] Linde, M, Jakobsson, E.L., Galbe, M., and Zacchi, G., 2008, Biomass Bioenergy, 32, 4, 326-332.

[45] Suryawati, L., Mark, R.W., Danielle, D., Bellmer, Raymond L.H., Niels O.M., and Ibrahim, M.B., 2009,Process Biochem., 44, 5, 540-545.

[46] Hermawan, Y., and Sudiyani Y., 2009, Sakarifikasi fermentasi serentak tandan kosong kelapa sawit untuk produksi etanol. Proc. of biomass utilization for alternative energy and chemicals. Univ. Katolik Parahyangan, Bandung, Indonesia, 99-104.

[47] Öhgren, K., Bura, R., Lesnicki, G., Saddler, J., and Zacchi, G., 2007, Process Biochem., 42, 5, 834-839.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.21471

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 4835 | views : 3992

Copyright (c) 2010 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 /e-ISSN 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.