METHYL MERCURY PRODUCTION IN NATURAL-COLLECTED SEDIMENT WITH DIFFERENT GEOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS

https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.21509

Markus T. Lasut(1*), Hardin F. Rares(2), Yoshiaki Yasuda(3)

(1) Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Sam Ratulangi University, Jl. Kampus Unsrat Bahu, Manado 95115, Sulawesi Utara, Indonesia
(2) Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Manado Sate University, Tondano, Sulawesi Utara, Indonesia
(3) Natural Sciences Laboratory, National Institute for Minamata Disease, Minamata City, Kumamoto, Jepang
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Production of methyl mercury (MeHg) has been shown in laboratory experiments using mercuric chloride (HgCl2) compound released into natural-collected sediments with different geochemical conditions. While the HgCl2 concentration was 30 µl of 113 ppm of HgCl2, the geochemical conditions [pH, salinity, total organic content (TOC), sulfur] of sampled sediments were A: 8.20, 0.00 ppt, 1.97%, and 0.92 ppt, respectively; B: 7.90, 2.00 ppt, 4.69%, and 1.98 ppt, respectively; and C: 8.20, 24.00 ppt, 1.32 %, and 90.90 ppt, respectively. A control was set with no HgCl2. Samples and control were incubated in room temperature of 27 ± 1 °C. Observations were done along 9 days with interval of 3 days. While total Hg was measured using mercury analyzer with Cold Vapor-Atomic Absorbtion Spectrophometer (CV-AAS) system, MeHg was measured by using a gas chromatograph with ECD detector after extracted by dithizone-sodium sulfide extraction method. The result shows that MeHg was found in both treatment and control experiments. The concentrations of the MeHg varied according to the geochemical condition of the sampled sediments. Peak production of MeHg occurred on the third day; however, the production was not significantly affected by the incubation time. Optimum production was found inversely related to the pH, in which highest and lowest the pH formed an ineffectively methylated mercury species. The TOC was significantly correlated to the optimum production. Salinity and sulfate contents were found not correlated to the optimum of MeHg production.


Keywords


Methyl mercury; methylation process; sediment; biogeochemistry

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


References

[1]   UNEP, 2002, Global Mercury Assessment, UNEP Chemicals, IOMC, Geneva, Switzerland.

[2]   Yasuda, Y., 2000, Water Pollution Control Policy and Management: the Japanese Experience, Gyosei Ltd., Tokyo, Bab 13.

[3]   de Lacerda, L.D., dan Salomons, W., 1998, Mercury from gold and silver mining: a chemical time bomb? Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

[4]   de Lacerda, L.D., 2003, Environ. Geol., 43, 308-314.

[5]   James, L.P., 1994, J. Geochem. Explor., 50, 493-500.

[6]   Limbong, D., Kumampung, J., Rimper, J., Arai, T., and Miyazaki, N., 2003, Sci. Total Environ., 302, 227-236.

[7]   JPHA, 2001, Preventive Measures against Environmental Mercury Pollution and Its Health Effects, Public Health Association, Japan.

[8]   Canuel, R., Lucotte, M., and Rheault, I., 2004, Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Mercury as a Global Pollutant, Ljubljana, 364-368.

[9]   Beckvar, N., Field, J., Salazar, S., and Hoff, R., 1996, Contaminants in Aquatic Habitats at Hazardous Waste Sites: Mercury, NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS ORCA 100, NOAA-NOS, Seattle.

[10] King, J.K., Gladden, J.B., Harmon, S.M., and Fu, T.T., 2001, Wetland Mesocosms Containing Gypsum-Amended Sediments and Scirpus californicus, http://www.osti.gov/bridge/.

[11] Ekstrom, E.B., Morel, F.M.M., and Benoit, J.M., 2003, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 69, 9, 5414-5422.

[12] Morel, F.M.M., Kraepiel, A.M.L., and Amyot, M., 1998, Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 29, 543-66.

[13] Greenberg, A.E., Clesceri, L.E., and Eaton, A.D., 1992, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 18th ed., APHA, Washington.

[14] Benoit, J.M., 1999, The Effects of Sulfate and Sulfide on Mercury Methylation in Florida Everglades, Progress Report, http://es.epa.gov/ncer/fellow/progress/97/.

[15] Langston, W.J., 1990, Heavy metals in the marine environment, CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, Florida.

[16] Holme, N.A., and McIntyre, A.D., 1984, Methods for the Study of Marine Benthos, 2nd ed., Blackwell Scientific Publications Inc., Oxford.

[17] Benoit, J.M., Gilmour, C.C., and Mason, R.P., 2001, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 67, 1, 51-58.

[18] Akagi, H., and Nishimura, H., 1991, Advances in Mercury Toxicology, Plenum Press, New York, 53-76.

[19] Ikingura, J.R., and Akagi, H., 1999, Sci. Total Environ., 234, 109-118.

[20] Matsuyama, A., Liya, Q., Yasutake, A., Yamaguchi, M., Aramaki, R., Xiaojie, L., Pin, J., Li, L., Mei, L., Yumin, A., and Yasuda, Y., 2004, Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 73, 846-852.

[21] Quevauviller, Ph., Fortunati, G.U., and Filippelli, M., 1997, The certification of the contents (mass fractions) of total mercury and methyl mercury in estuarine sediment: CRM 580, European Commission, BCR Information, Reference Materials, ECSC-EC-EAEC, Brussels, Luxembourg.

[22] Fowler, J., and Cohen, L., 1990, Practical Statistics for Field Biology, John Wiley & Sons, England.

[23] Barkay, T., Gillman, M., and Turner, R., 1997, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 63, 11, 4267-4271.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.21509

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 354 | views : 775


Copyright (c) 2010 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

 


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 / 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Web
Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.