Electrically Conductive Nanocomposites Polymer of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol)/Glutaraldehyde/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes: Preparation and Characterization


Fitri Khoerunnisa(1*), Hendrawan Hendrawan(2), Yaya Sonjaya(3), Rizki Deli Hasanah(4)

(1) Department of Chemistry, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Jl. Dr. Setiabudi 229, Bandung 40154, Indonesia
(2) Department of Chemistry, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Jl. Dr. Setiabudi 229, Bandung 40154, Indonesia
(3) Department of Chemistry, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Jl. Dr. Setiabudi 229, Bandung 40154, Indonesia
(4) Department of Chemistry, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Jl. Dr. Setiabudi 229, Bandung 40154, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


Electrically conductive nanocomposites polymer of poly(vinyl alcohol)/PVA, glutaraldehyde (GA) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) has been successfully synthesized. The polymer nanocomposites were prepared by mixing PVA, GA (crosslinker), and MWCNT dispersion with an aid of ultrasonic homogenizer at 50 °C. The content of MWCNT, in particular, was varied in order to determine the effect of MWCNT on electrical conductivity of polymer composites. The polymer mixture was casted into a disc to obtain thin film. The electrical conductivity, surface morphology, and mechanical properties of the composites film were investigated by means of four probes method, FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, SEM, AFM, and tensile strength measurement, respectively. It was found that the optimum composition of PVA (10%): GA (1%): MWCNT (1%) was 20:20:3 in volume ratio. The addition of MWCNT induced the electrically conductive network on polymer matrix where the electrical conductivity of nanocomposites film significantly increased up to 8.28 x 10-2 S/sq due to reduction of the contact resistance between conductive filler. Additionally, the mechanical strength of nanocomposites polymer were significantly increased as a result of MWCNT addition. Modification of morphological structure of composite film as indicated by FTIR spectra, X-ray diffraction patterns, SEM, and AFM images verified the effective MWCNT filler network in the polymer matrix.


electrical conductivity; nanocomposites; PVA; MWCNT

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Hu, B., Li, D., Manandharm, P., Fan, Q., Kasilingam, D., and Calvert, P., 2012, CNT/Conducting polymer composite conductors impart high flexibility to textile electroluminescent devices, J. Mater. Chem., 22 (4), 1598–1605.

[2] Snook, G.A., Kao, P., and Best, A.S., 2011, Conducting-polymer-based supercapacitor devices and electrodes, J. Power Sources, 196 (1), 1–12.

[3] Gangopadhyay, R., and De, A., 2000, Conducting polymer nanocomposites: A brief overview, Chem. Mater., 12 (3), 608–622.

[4] Kumar, B., Castro, M., and Feller J.F., 2012, Poly(lactic acid)–multi-wall carbon nanotube conductive biopolymer nanocomposite vapour sensors, Sens. Actuators, B, 161 (1), 621–628.

[5] Bhargav, P.B., Mohan, V.M., Sharma, A.K., and Rao, V.V.R.N., 2009, Investigations on electrical properties of (PVA: NaF) polymer electrolytes for electrochemical cell applications, Curr. Appl. Phys., 9 (1), 165–171.

[6] Jia, Y.T., Gong, J., Gu, X.H., Kim, H.Y., Dong, J., and Shen, X.Y., 2007, Fabrication and characterization of poly(vinyl alcohol)/chitosan blend nanofibers produced by electrospinning method, Carbohydr. Polym., 67 (3), 403–409.

[7] Rajendran, S., Sivakumar, M., and Subadevi, R., 2004, Li-ion conduction of plasticized PVA solid polymer electrolytes complexed with various lithium salts, Solid State Ionics, 167 (3-4), 335–339.

[8] Dian, P.P., Erizal, E., and Basril, A., 2013, Polymeric biomaterials film based on poly(vinyl alcohol) and fish scale collagen by repetitive freeze-thaw cycles followed by gamma irradiation, Indones. J. Chem., 13 (3), 221–228.

[9] Chatterjee, J., Liu, T. Wang, B., and Zheng, J.P., 2010, Highly conductive PVA organogel electrolytes for applications of lithium batteries and electrochemical capacitors, Solid State Ionics, 181 (11-12), 531–535.

[10] Yu, H., Wu, J., Fan, L., Xu, K., Zhong, X., Lin, Y., and Lin, J., 2011, Improvement of the performance for quasi-solid-state supercapacitor by using PVA–KOH–KI polymer gel electrolyte, Electrochim. Acta, 56 (20), 6881–6886.

[11] Thostenson, E.T., Li, C.Y., and Chou, T.W., 2005, Nanocomposites in context, Compos. Sci. Technol., 65 (3-4), 491–516.

[12] Mittal, V., 2011, Surface Modification of Nanotube Filler, 1st ed., Wiley-VCH, Germany, 94.

[13] Ajayan, P.M., Schadler, L.S., and Braun, P.V., 2006, Nanocomposite Science and Technology, Wiley, Germany, 80.

[14] Ko, H., Jiang, C., Shulha, H., and Tsukruk, V.V., 2005, Carbon nanotube arrays encapsulated into freely suspended flexible films, Chem. Mater., 17 (10), 2490–2493.

[15] Cheng, Q., Wang, B., Zhang, C., and Liang, Z., 2010, Functionalized carbon-nanotube sheet/bismaleimide nanocomposites: mechanical and electrical performance beyond carbon-fiber composites, Small, 6 (6), 763–767.

[16] Mamedov, A.A., and Kotov, N.A., 2000, Free-standing layer-by-layer assembled films of magnetite nanoparticles, Langmuir, 16 (13), 5530–5533.

[17] Aroca, R.F, Goulet, P.J.G., dos Santos, D.S., AlvarezPuebla, R.A., and Oliveira, O.N., 2005, Silver nanowire layer-by-layer films as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering, Anal. Chem., 77 (2), 378–382.

[18] Kovtyukhova, N.I., Martin B.R., Mbindyo, J.K.N., Smith, P.A., Razavi, B., Mayer, T.S., and Mallouk, T.E., 2001, Layer-by-layer assembly of rectifying junctions in and on metal nanowires, J. Phys. Chem. B, 105 (37), 8762–8769.

[19] Moniruzzaman, M., and Winey, K.I., 2006, Polymer nanocomposites containing carbon nanotubes, Macromolecules, 39 (16), 5194–5205.

[20] Meincke, O., Kaempfer, D., Weickmann, H., Friedrich, C., Vathauer, M., and Warth, H., 2004, Mechanical properties and electrical conductivity of carbon-nanotube filled polyamide-6 and its blends with acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene, Polymer, 45 (3), 739–748.

[21] Xu, Z., Zhang, Y., Wang, Z., Sun, N., and Li, H., 2011, Enhancement of electrical conductivity by changing phase morphology for composite consisting polylactide and poly(ε-caprolactone) filled with acid-oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 3 (12), 4858–4864.

[22] Chu, C.C., White, K.L., Liu, P., Zhang, X., and Sue, H.J., 2012, Electrical conductivity and thermal stability of polypropylene containing well-dispersed multi-walled carbon nanotubes disentangled with exfoliated nanoplatelets, Carbon, 50 (12), 4711–4721.

[23] Long, Y.Z., Li, M.M., Gu, C., Wan, M., Duvail, J.L. Liu, Z., and Fan, Z., 2011, Recent advances in synthesis, physical properties and applications of conducting polymer nanotubes and nanofibers, Prog. Polym. Sci., 36 (10), 1415–1442.

[24] Peng, C., Zhang, S., Jewell, D., and Chen, G.Z., 2008, Carbon nanotube and conducting polymer composites for supercapacitors, Prog. Nat. Sci., 18 (7), 777–788.

[25] Balberg, I., Binenbaum, N., and Wagner, N., 1984, Percolation thresholds in the three-dimensional sticks system, Phys. Rev. Lett., 52 (17), 1465–1468.

[26] Santoso, U.T., Santosa, S.J., Siswanta, D., Rusdiarso, B., and Shimadzu, S., 2010, Characterization of sorbent produced through immobilization of humic acid on chitosan using glutaraldehyde as cross-linking agent and Pb(II) ion as active site protector, Indones. J. Chem., 10 (3), 301–309.

[27] Mansur, H.S., Sadahira, C.M., Souza, A.M., and Mansur, A.A.P., 2008, FTIR spectroscopy characterization of poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel with different hydrolysis degree and chemically crosslinked with glutaraldehyde, Mater. Sci. Eng., C, 28 (4), 539–548.

[28] Xue, B., Zhang, J., and Zhaou, T., 2015, Moving-window two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopic study on the dissolution process of poly(vinyl alcohol), Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 407 (29), 8765–8771.

[29] Gupta, S., Prabha, C.R., and Murthy, C.N., 2016, Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes/polyvinyl alcohol membrane coated glassy carbon electrode for efficient enzyme immobilization and glucose sensing, J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 4 (4A), 3734–3740.

[30] Malikov, E.Y., Muradov, M.B., Akperov, O.H., Eyvazoya, G.M., Puskas, R., Madarasz, D., Nagy, L., Kukovecz, A., and Konya, Z., 2014, Synthesis and characterization of polyvinyl alcohol based multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposites, Physica E, 61, 129–134.

[31] Ricciardi, R., Auriemma, F., Roda, C.D., and Laupetre, F., 2004, X-ray diffraction analysis of poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels, obtained by freezing and thawing techniques, Macromolecules, 37 (5), 1921–1927.

[32] Spitalsky, Z., Tasis, D., Papagelis, K., and Galiotis, C., 2010, Carbon nanotube–polymer composites: chemistry, processing, mechanical and electrical properties, Prog. Polym. Sci., 35 (3), 357–401.

[33] Jiang, Q., Wang, X., Zhu, Y., Hui, D., and Qiu, Y., 2014, Mechanical, electrical and thermal properties of aligned carbon nanotube/polyimide composites, Composites Part B, 56, 408–412.

[34] Tkalya, E.E., Ghislandi, M., de With, G., and Koning, C.E., 2012, The use of surfactants for dispersing carbon nanotubes and graphene to make conductive nanocomposites, Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci., 17 (4), 225–232.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.26620

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 2913 | views : 3072

Copyright (c) 2018 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 /e-ISSN 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.