Screening of Microwave-Assisted-Batch Extraction Parameters for Recovering Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents from Chromolaena odorata Leaves through Two-Level Factorial Design

https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.40863

Oluwaseun Ruth Alara(1), Abdurahman Hamid Nour(2*), Siti Kholijah binti Abdul Mudalip(3)

(1) Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang, Malaysia
(2) Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang, Malaysia
(3) Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang, Malaysia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of phenolic compounds from Chromolaena odorata leaves was investigated using one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) and two-level factorial design. The MAE parameters studied were irradiation time (A: 1–5 min); microwave power level (B: 400-800 W); extraction temperature (C: 60–80 °C); solvent/feed ratio (D: 8:1–14:1 mL/g); and ethanol concentration (E: 20–60% v/v). The optima yields of TPC and TFC were 56.13 mg GAE/g d.w. and 44.78 mg QE/g d.w., respectively were achieved from MAE of C. odorata leaf at irradiation time of 2 min, microwave power of 600 W, temperature of 60 °C, solvent:feed ratio of 10:1 mL/g, and ethanol concentration of 40% v/v through one-factor-at-time (OFAT) experimental trials. The results obtained from a two-level factorial design experiments reflected that only ethanol concentration (20–60% v/v), irradiation time (1–5 min) and microwave power level (400–800 W) had significant effects on the yields of total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) from C. odorata leaves (p < 0.05). However, temperature and solvent/feed ratio was not significant. In addition, the interactions AB (irradiation time and microwave power) and AE (irradiation time and ethanol concentration) contributed greatly to the recovery yields.

Keywords


Chromolaena odorata; phenolics; flavonoids; microwave-assisted extraction

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


References

[1] Alara, O.R., Abdurahman, N.H., Ukaegbu, C.I., Azhari, N.H., and Kabbashi, N.A., 2018, Metabolic profiling of flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, and terpenoids in the extract from Vernonia cinerea leaf using LC-Q-TOF-MS, J. Liq. Chromatogr. Related Technol., 41 (11), 722–731.

[2] Chen, A.Y., and Chen, Y.C., 2014, A review of the dietary flavonoid, kaempferol on human health and cancer chemoprevention, Food Chem., 138 (4), 2099–2107.

[3] Yao, L.H., Jiang, Y.M., Shi, J., Tomás-Barberán, F.A., Datta, N., Singanusong, R., and Chen, S.S., 2004, Flavonoids in food and their health benefits, Plant Foods Hum. Nutr., 59 (3), 113–122.

[4] Mihai, C. M., Mãrghitaş, L.A., Dezmirean, D.S., and Lavinia, B., 2011, Correlation between polyphenolic profile and antioxidant activity of propolis from Transylvania, Anim. Sci. Biotechnol., 44 (2), 100–103,.

[5] Omokhua, A.G., McGaw, L.J., Finnie, J.F., and Van Staden, J., 2016, Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae) in sub-Saharan Africa: A synthesis and review of its medicinal potential, J. Ethnopharmacol., 183, 112–122.

[6] Hanh, T.T.H., Hang, D.T.T., Minh, C.V., and Dat, N.T., 2011, Anti-inflammatory effects of fatty acids isolated from Chromolaena odorata, Asian Pac. J. Trop. Med., 4 (10), 760–763.

[7] Phan, T.T., Wang, L., See, P., Grayer, R.J., Chan, S.Y., and Lee, S.T., 2001, Phenolic compounds of Chromolaena odorata protect cultured skin cells from oxidative damage: Implication for cutaneous wound healing, Biol. Pharm. Bull., 24 (12), 1373–1379.

[8] Lu, X., Wang, J., Al-Qadiri, H.M., Ross, C.F., Powers, J. ., Tang, J., and Rasco, B.A., 2011, Determination of total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of onion (Allium cepa) and shallot (Allium oschaninii) using infrared spectroscopy, Food Chem., 129 (2), 637–644.

[9] Hanphanphoom, S., and Krajangsang, S., 2016, Antimicrobial activity of Chromolaena odorata extracts against bacterial human skin infections, Mod. Appl. Sci., 10 (2), 159–171.

[10] Vijayaraghavan, K., Rajkumar, J., and Seyed, M.A., 2017, Efficacy of Chromolaena odorata leaf extracts for the healing of rat excision wounds, Vet. Med., 62 (10), 565–578.

[11] Azwanida, N.N., 2015, A review on the extraction methods use in medicinal plants, principle, strength, and limitation, Med. Aromat. Plants, 4 (3), 3–8.

[12] Dahmoune, F., Spigno, G., Moussi, K., Remini, H., Cherbal, A., and Madani, K., 2014, Pistacia lentiscus leaves as a source of phenolic compounds: Microwave-assisted extraction optimized and compared with ultrasound-assisted and conventional solvent extraction, Ind. Crops Prod., 61, 31–40.

[13] Alara, O.R., Abdurahman, N.H., and Olalere, O.A., 2017, Ethanolic extraction of flavonoids, phenolics and antioxidants from Vernonia amygdalina leaf using two-level factorial design, J. King Saud Univ. Sci., In Press.

[14] Alara, O.R., Abdurahman, N.H., Ukaegbu, C.I., and Azhari, N.H., 2018, Vernonia cinerea leaves as the source of phenolic compounds, antioxidants, and anti-diabetic activity using microwave-assisted extraction technique, Ind. Crop. Prod., 122, 533–544.

[15] Alara, O.R., Abdurahman, N.H., and Ukaegbu, C.I., 2017, Soxhlet extraction of phenolic compunds from Vernonia cinerea leaves and its antioxidant activity, J. Appl. Res. Med. Aromat. Plants, 11, 12–17.

[16] Chew, K.K., Khoo, M.Z., Ng, S.Y., Thoo, Y.Y., Aida, W.M.W., and Ho, C.W., 2011, Effect of ethanol concentration, extraction time and extraction temperature on the recovery of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of Orthosiphon stamineus extracts, Int. Food Res. J., 18 (4), 1427–1435.

[17] Dahmoune, F., Nayak, B., Moussi, K., Remini, H., and Madani, K., 2015, Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of polyphenols from Myrtus communis L. leaves, Food Chem., 166, 585–595.

[18] Bouterfas, K., Mehdadi, Z., Benmansour, D., and Khaled, M.B., 2014, Optimization of extraction conditions of some phenolic compounds from white horehound (Marrubium vulgare L.) leaves, Int. J. Org. Chem., 4 (5), 292–308.

[19] Ameer, K., Bae, S.W., Jo, Y., Lee, H.G., Ameer, A., and Kwon, J.H., 2017, Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of total extract, stevioside and rebaudioside-A from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) leaves, using response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) modelling, Food Chem., 229, 198–207.

[20] Do, Q.D., Angkawijaya, A.E., Tran-Nguyen, P.L., Huynh, L.H., Soetaredjo, F.E., Ismadji, S., and Ju, Y.H., 2014, Effect of extraction solvent on total phenol content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of Limnophila aromatica, J. Food Drug Anal., 22 (3), 296–302.

[21] Xiong, Y., Rao, L., Xiong, L., Ai, Q., and Wu, X., 2012, Effects of extraction solvent on polyphenolic contents and antioxidant activities of Osmanthus fragrans’ seed, Proc. Int. Conf. Biomed. Eng. Biotechnol., 217–220.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.40863

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1020 | views : 764


Copyright (c) 2019 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

 


Indonesian Journal of Chemisty (ISSN 1411-9420 / 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Web
Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.