Spectrophotometric Determination of Cu(II) in Analytical Sample Using a New Chromogenic Reagent (HPEDN)


Esraa Raafid(1), Muneer A. Al-Da’amy(2), Salih Hadi Kadhim(3*)

(1) Department of Chemistry, College of Education for Pure Science, University of Kerbala, Kerbala, Iraq
(2) Department of Chemistry, College of Education for Pure Science, University of Kerbala, Kerbala, Iraq
(3) Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Babylon, Babylon, Iraq
(*) Corresponding Author


The sensitive, accurate and rapid spectrophotometric method that can be used for determination of Cu(II) in the analytical samples using a new chromogenic reagent azo-Schiff base 1-((4-(1-(2-hydroxyphenylimino)ethyl)-phenyl)diazenyl) naphthalene-2-ol (HPEDN). The synthesized new (azo-Schiff base) ligand was complexed with copper(II) and characterized using UV/Vis spectroscopy, IR spectra, 1H-NMR, 13CN-MR spectra, Molar electrical connectivity, and measuring of their melting points. Then obtained complex showed a brown color with maximum absorption at λmax = 500 nm at pH = 9. Beer’s law is obeyed in the concentration in the range of 1.7 to 5.4 μg/mL. The molar absorption and Sandell’s sensitivity values of Cu(II) complex were found to be 0.5038 × 104 L mol–1 cm–1 and 0.0039 μg cm–2, respectively. Structure of the prepared complex was investigated by using the continuous variation, mole ratio method and slope analysis method. The obtained results showed that the complex has (1:2) (M:L) molar ratio and these results showed that this method were more sensitive, more precise and accuracy through the calculation of (Re, Erel, R.S.D)%. The most important interferences were due to, Co2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Mn2+, Pd2+, Fe3+ and these were studied, and suitable masking agents were used. This method was applied for the determination of Cu(II) in alloy. The obtained results were compared with flame atomic absorption spectrometry method and these results were in a good agreement in these two cases.


azo-Schiff base compounds; 2-amino phenol Schiff base; precise and accuracy

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Wells, A.F, 1945, Structural Inorganic Chemistry, 4th Ed., Clarendon Press-Oxford, London, 439, 811, 954–973.

[2] Greenwood, N., and Earnshow A., 1997, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd Ed., Elsevier, Oxford, 1174.

[3] Fouad, H.K., Atrees, M.S., and Badawy, W.I., 2016, Development of spectrophotometric determination of beryllium in beryl minerals using chrome Azurol S, Arabian J. Chem., 9 (Suppl. 1), S235–S239.

[4] Supong, K, and Usapein, P., 2019, Reliable determination of copper complex ions in synthetic wastewater using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry, Water Sci. Technol., 79 (5), 833–841.

[5] Mohammed, S.F., and Musa, F.H., 2014, Synthesis and characterization of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) complexes with a new derivative of L-ascorbic acid, J. Kerbala Univ., 7 (4), 42–50.

[6] Li, M., and Zinkle, S.J., 2012, “Physical and mechanical properties of copper and copper alloys in Comprehensive Nuclear Materials, Vol. 4, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 667–690.

[7] Shiyab, S., 2018, Phytoaccumulation of copper from irrigation water and its effect on the internal structure of lettuce, Agriculture, 8(2), 29.

[8] Li, M., and Zinkle, S.J., 2012, “Physical and mechanical properties of copper and copper alloys" in Comprehensive Nuclear Materials, Vol. 4, Eds. Konings, R.M.J., Elsevier, 667–690

[9] Saranya, R., Rajasekaran, J., and Selvaraj, S.J., 2017, Synthesis and characterization of biologically important Zn(II), Cu(II) and Co(II) metal complexes in the 3D- series, J. Chem. Pharm. Sci., 1, 64–73.

[10] Ahuja, B., Karg, M., Nagulin, K.Y., and Schmidt, M., 2014, Fabrication and characterization of high strength Al-Cu alloys processed using laser beam melting in metal powder bed, Physics Procedia, 56, 135–146.

[11] Chaudhary, N.K., and Mishra, P., 2017, Metal complexes of a novel Schiff bases on penicillin: Characterization, molecular modeling, and antibacterial activity study, Bioinorg. Chem. Appl., 2017, 6927675.

[12] Ali, K.J., Mohammed, L.A., Ali, F.J., and Raheem, H.N., 2015, New spectrophotometric determination of copper(II) using an organic reagent derived from imidazole and 4-aminoantypyrine and applied onto different samples, J. Chem. Pharm. Sci., 8 (2), 201–207.

[13] Seidi, S., and Alavi, L. 2019, Novel and rapid deep eutectic solvent (DES) homogeneous liquid–liquid micro-extraction (HLLME) with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) detection for the determination of copper in vegetables, Anal. Lett., 52 (13), 2092–2106.

[14] Yang, Q., Tang, G.P., Tian, L.F., Wei, Q.L., and Wang, C., 2015, Determination of trace copper in vanadium alloy by flame atomic absorption spectrometry, Adv. Mater. Res., 1120-1121, 1395–1398.

[15] Karadjov, M., Velitchkova, N., Veleva, O., Velichkov, S., Markov, P., and Daskalova, N., 2016, Spectral interferences in the determination of rhenium in molybdenum and copper concentrates by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), Spectrochim. Acta, Part B, 119, 76–82.

[16] Pięk, M., Fendrych, K., Smajdor, J., Piech, R., and Paczosa-Bator, B., 2017, High selective potentiometric sensor for determination of nanomolar con-centration of Cu(II) using a polymeric electrode modified by graphene/7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane nanoparticles, Talanta, 170, 41–48.

[17] Scarano, G., Morelli, E., Seritti, A., and Zirino, A., 1990, Determination of copper in seawater by anodic stripping voltammetry using ethylenediamine, Anal. Chem., 62 (9), 943–948.

[18] Ohno, S., Tanaka, M., Teshima, N., and Sakai, T., 2004, Successive determination of copper and iron by a flow injection-catalytic photometric method using a serial flow cell, Anal. Sci., 20 (1), 171–175.

[19] Al-Abachi, M.Q., Abed, S.S., and Al-Najjar, N.A., 2017, A new chromogenic reagent for determination of copper(II) in water samples using flow injection-technique, Iraqi J. Sci., 58 (1), 201–210.

[20] Satheesh, K.P., Ravichandran, S., and Suryanarayanarao, V., 2011, Spectrophotometric determination of Cu (II) and Ni (II) using 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone, Int. J. ChemTech Res., 3 (4), 2062–2065.

[21] Ali, A.A.M., AL-Da’amy, M.A., and Kadhier, A.F., 2010, Synthesis of 2-[(3-chloro-4,6-disulfanamide phenyl) azo] -4,5–diphenyl imidazole (Cdsai) as a new analytical reagent for the determination of Cu(II), Iraqi Nat. J. Chem., 37, 66–73.

[22] Kadhim, S.H., Abd-Alla, I.Q., and Hashim, T.J., 2017, Synthesis and characteristic study of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes of new Schiff base derived from 4-amino antipyrine, Int. J. Chem. Sci., 15 (1), 107.

[23] Aswar, A., Bansod, A.D., Aswale, S.R., and Mandlik, P.R., 2004, Synthesis, characterization , electrical and biological studies of Cr(III), Mn(III), Fe(III),Ti(III), VO(IV), Th(IV), Zr(IV) and UO2(VI) polychelates with bis-bidentate Schiff base, Indian J. Chem., 43A, 1892–1896.

[24] Reiss, A., Samide, A., Ciobanu, G., and Dăbuleanu, I., 2015, Synthesis, spectral characterization and thermal behavior of new metal(II) complexes with Schiff base derived from amoxicillin, J. Chil. Chem. Soc., 60 (3), 3074–3079.

[25] Funk, W., Dammann, V., Donnevert, G., Ianelli, S., Ianelli, E., and Gray, A., 2007, Quality Assurance in Analytical Chemistry: Applications in Environmental, Food, and Materials Analysis, Biotechnology, and Medical Engineering, 2nd Ed., Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, 35.

[26] Tirmizi, S.A., Wattoo, M.H.S., Sarwar, S., Anwar, W., Wattoo, F.H., Memon, A.N., and Iqbal, J., 2009, Spectrophotometric study of stability constants of famotidine-Cu(II) complex at different temperatures, Arabian J. Sci. Eng., 34 (2), 43–48.

[27] Yousif, E., Adil, H., and Aziz, Y.F.A., 2010, Synthesis and characterization of some metal ions with 2-amino acetate benzothiazole, J. Appl. Sci. Res., 6 (7), 879–882.

[28] Skorik, N.A., Filippova, M.M., Bukhol’tseva, E.I., Mal’kov, V.S., and Kurzina, I.A., 2015, Cobalt(II) and copper(II) complexes with carboxylic acids, imidazole, and 2-methylimidazole, Russ. J. Inorg. Chem., 60 (6), 729–735.

[29] Mihelj, T., Tomašić, V., Biliškov, N., and Liu, F., 2014, Temperature-dependent IR spectroscopic and structural study of 18-crown-6 chelating ligand in the complexation with sodium surfactant salts and potassium picrate, Spectrochim. Acta, Part A, 124, 12–20.

[30] Varga, G., Csendens, Z., Peintler, G., Berkesi, O., Sipos, P., and Palinko, I., 2014, Using low-frequency IR spectra for the unambiguous identification of metal ion–ligand coordination sites in purpose-built complexes, Spectrochim. Acta, Part A, 122, 257–259.

[31] Silverstein, R.M., Webster, F.X., and Kiemle, D., 1996, Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compound, 6th Ed, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 180.

[32] Al-Adilee, K.J., and Hesson, H.M., 2015, Synthesis, identification, structural, studies and biological activity of some transition metal complexes with novel heterocyclic azo-Schiff base ligand derived from benzimidazole, J. Chem. Pharm. Res., 7 (8), 89–103.

[33] Sugiyarto, K.H., Kusumawardani, C., and Wulandari, K.E., 2018, Synthesis and structural analysis of powder complex of tris(bipyridine)cobalt(II) trifluoro-methanesulfonate octahydrate, Indones. J. Chem., 18 (4), 696–701.

[34] Al-Shareefi, A.N., Kadhim, S.H., and Jawad, W.A., 2013, Synthesis and study of Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes of new Schiff’s base ligand derived from 4-amino antipyrine, J. Applicable Chem., 2 (3), 438–446.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.47894

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 3525 | views : 7737

Copyright (c) 2019 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 /e-ISSN 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.