Development of a Simple Fe(II) Ion Colorimetric Sensor from the Immobilization of 1,10-Phenanthroline In Alginate/Pectin Film

Nindya Tri Muliawati(1), Dwi Siswanta(2*), Nurul Hidayat Aprilita(3)

(1) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, 55281 Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(2) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, 55281 Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(3) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, 55281 Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


An optical analytical sensor was proposed based on the complexation reactions of 1,10-phenanthroline derivative in aqueous solutions. This study aims to synthesize a metal ion sensor for detecting Fe(ll) ion from the immobilization of 1,10-phenanthroline compound in alginate/pectin film. This was carried out by characterizing the films using the Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The determination of the optimal condition for Fe(II) ion detection and validation of the parameters was conducted by measuring the absorbance of the films using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. After the addition of Fe(II) ion, the color of the alginate/pectin-phenanthroline film changed from transparent yellow to orange-red, showing its potential as a visual colorimetric sensor for iron(II) ion. It was found that the optimum condition for Fe(II) ion sensing was at 513 nm after 2 min of detection at pH 2. The alginate/pectin-phenanthroline film had good linearity, precision, selectivity, and accuracy with a detection limit as low as 0.446 mg L–1, which was remarkable.


alginate/pectin film; colorimetric sensor; Fe(II) ion detection; 1,10-phenanthroline

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Chakrabarty, S., Tonu, N.T., and Saha, N.K., 2018, Removal of iron(II) ion from aqueous solution using waste tea leaves, Int. J. Eng. Sci., 6 (12), 62–67.

[2] World Health Organization, 1996, Guidelines for Drinking Water, Geneva.

[3] Kumar, S.A., Thakur, N., Parab, H.J., Pandey, S.P., Shinde, R.N., Pandey, A.K., Kumar, S.D., and Reddy, A.V.R., 2014, A visual strip sensor for determination of iron, Anal. Chim. Acta, 851, 87–94.

[4] Pavlovska, G., Stafilov, T., and Čundeva, K., 2015, Determination of iron in drinking water after its flotation concentration by two new dithiocarbamate collectors, J. Environ. Sci. Health. Part A Environ., 50 (13), 1386–1392.

[5] Adebayo, B.K., Ayejuyo, S., Okoro, H.K., and Ximba, B.J., 2011, Spectrophotometric determination of iron(III) in tap water using 8-hydoxyquinoline as a chromogenic reagent, Afr. J. Biotechnol., 10 (71), 16051–16057.

[6] Poirier, L., Nelson, J., Leong, D., Berhane, L., Hajdu, P., and Lopez-Linares, F., 2016, Application of ICP-MS and ICP-OES on the determination of nickel, vanadium, iron, and calcium in petroleum crude oils via direct dilution, Energy Fuels, 30 (5), 3783–3790.

[7] Lou, T., Chen, L., Chen, Z., Wang, Y., Chen, L., and Li, J., 2011, Colorimetric detection of trace copper ions based on catalytic leaching of silver-coated gold nanoparticles, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 3 (11), 4215–4220.

[8] Murthy, Y.L.N., Govindh, B., Diwakar, B.S., Nagalakshmi, K., and Singh, R., 2011, A simple inexpensive detection method of nickel in water using optical sensor, Int. J. ChemTech. Res., 3 (3), 1285–1291.

[9] Abounassif, M.A., Al-Omar, M.A., Amr, A.G.E., and Mostafa, G.A.E., 2011, PVC membrane sensor for potentiometric determination of iron(II) in some pharmaceutical formulations based on a new neutral ionophore, Drug Test. Anal., 3 (6), 373–379.

[10] Galus, S., and Lenart, A., 2013, Development and characterization of composite edible films based on sodium alginate and pectin, J. Food Eng., 115 (4), 459–465.

[11] Bierhalz, A.C.K., da Silva, M.A., and Kieckbusch, T.G., 2012, Natamycin release from alginate/pectin films for food packaging applications, J. Food Eng., 110 (1), 18–25.

[12] Rezvanian, M., Ahmad, N., Mohd Amin, M.C.I., and Ng, S., 2017, Optimization, characterization, and in vitro assessment of alginate-pectin ionic cross-linked hydrogel film for wound dressing applications, Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 97, 131–140.

[13] Hua, S., Ma, H., Li, X., Yang, H., and Wang, A., 2010, pH-sensitive sodium alginate/poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel beads prepared by combined Ca2+ crosslinking and freeze-thawing cycles for controlled release of diclofenac sodium, Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 46 (5), 517–523.

[14] Coimbra, P., Ferreira, P., de Sousa, H.C., Batista, P., Rodrigues, M.A., Correia, I.J., and Gil, M.H., 2011, Preparation and chemical and biological characterization of a pectin/chitosan polyelectrolyte complex scaffold for possible bone tissue engineering applications, Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 48 (1), 112–118.

[15] Fayad, N.K., Al-Noor, T.H., Mahmood, A.A., and Malih, I.K., 2013, Synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial studies of Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II) mixed-ligand complexes containing amino acid (L-valine) and (1,10-phenanthroline), Chem. Mater. Res., 3 (5), 66–74.

[16] Smith, R.C., 1961, Infrared Spectra of Substituted 1,10-Phenanthrolines, Dissertation, Department of Chemistry Iowa University, Iowa, USA.

[17] Aguilar, K.C., Tello, F., Bierhalz, A.C.K., Romo, M.G.G., Flores, H.E.M., and Grosso, C.R.F., 2015, Protein adsorption onto alginate-pectin microparticles and films produced by ionic gelation, J. Food Eng., 154, 17–24.

[18] Awasthi, R., Kulkarni, G.T., Ramana, M.V., Pinto, T.J.A., Kikuchi, I.S., Ghisleni, D.D.M., Braga, M.S., and Dua, K., 2017, Dual crosslinked pectin–alginate network as sustained release hydrophilic matrix for repaglinide, Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 97, 721–732.

[19] Siracusa, V., Romani, S., Gigli, M., Mannozzi, C., Cecchini, J.P., Tylewicz, U., and Lotti, N., 2018, Characterization of active edible films based on citral essential oil, alginate and pectin, Materials, 11 (10), 1980.

[20] Wang, L., Zhang, Y., Park, Y., Chen, L., and Jung, Y.M., 2017, Quantitative determination of iron ions based on a resonance, Anal. Sci., 33 (1), 23–27.

[21] Adhikamsetty, R.K., Gollapalli, N.R., and Jonnalagadda, S.B., 2008, Complexation kinetics of Fe2+ with 1,10-phenanthroline forming ferroin in acidic solutions, Int. J. Chem. Kinet., 40 (8), 515–523.

[22] Harris, D.C., 2010, Quantitative Chemical Analysis, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, USA.

[23] Ondigo, D.A., Tshentu, Z.R., and Torto, N., 2013, Electrospun nanofiber based colorimetric probe for rapid detection of Fe2+ in water, Anal. Chim. Acta, 804, 228–234.

[24] Saithongdee, A., Praphairaksit, N., and Imyim, A., 2014, Electrospun curcumin-loaded zein membrane for iron(III) ions sensing, Sens. Actuators, B, 202, 935–940.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 527 | views : 457

Copyright (c) 2020 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 / 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.