Java Red Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Nutritional Value and Anthocyanin Profiles and Its Potential Role as Antioxidant and Anti-Diabetic

Ayu Tri Agustin(1), Anna Safitri(2), Fatchiyah Fatchiyah(3*)

(1) Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Brawijaya University, Jl. Veteran, Malang 65145, East Java, Indonesia; Research Center of Smart Molecule of Natural Genetics Resource, Brawijaya University, Malang 65145, East Java, Indonesia
(2) Research Center of Smart Molecule of Natural Genetics Resource, Brawijaya University, Malang 65145, East Java, Indonesia; Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Brawijaya University, Jl. Veteran, Malang 65145, East Java, Indonesia
(3) Department of Biology, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Brawijaya University, Jl. Veteran, Malang 65145, East Java, Indonesia; Research Center of Smart Molecule of Natural Genetics Resource, Brawijaya University, Malang 65145, East Java, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


This study investigates nutritional value, amino acid profile, and total anthocyanin in pigmented rice as an antioxidant and anti-diabetic agent. Six rice varieties were extracted using 0.1% HCl in methanol, namely four red rice, one black rice, and one white rice. Rice extract was used for proximate analysis and amino acid profiling. Total anthocyanin was measured and identified by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometer and thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The antioxidant activity was determined using Ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and the α-amylase enzyme-inhibited by anthocyanin extract of red rice as anti-diabetic was measured. The study result showed that the proximate level (carbohydrate, protein, lipid, water, and ash) in pigmented rice was different. Cempo merah red rice is a source of amino acids, both essential and non-essential amino acids that act as good nutrition. The highest total anthocyanin level between red rice varieties of 10.87 mg/g was found in Aek sibundong red rice. High biological function activities as an antioxidant were indicated by Aek sibundong red rice with an IC50 value of 6.65 µg/mL. Aek sibundong red rice shows the lowest IC50 value of 144.46 µg/mL in anti-diabetic activity. Thus, Aek sibundong red rice may have the potential as α-amylase inhibitor for diabetes prevention.


anthocyanin; bioactivity; nutrition; pigmented rice

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Rathna Priya, T.S., Eliazer Nelson, A.R.L., Kavitha, R., and Antony, U., 2019, Nutritional and functional properties of coloured rice varieties of South India: A review, J. Ethn. Foods, 6 (1), 11.

[2] Thushara, P.A.N., Godakumbura, P.I., and Prashantha, M.A.B., 2019, Importance, health benefits and bioactivities of Sri Lankan traditional rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties: A review, Int. J. Agric. Environ. Biores., 4 (3), 119–128.

[3] Wang, W., Li, Y., Dang, P., Zhao, S., Lai, D., and Zhou, L., 2018, Rice secondary metabolites: structures, roles, biosynthesis, and metabolic regulation, Molecules, 23 (12), 3098.

[4] Raghuvanshi, R.S., Dutta, A., Tewari, G., and Suri, S., 2017, Qualitative characteristics of red rice and white rice procured from local market of Uttarakhand: A comparative study, J. Rice Res., 10 (1), 49–53.

[5] Saragih, B., Naibaho, N.M., and Saragih, B., 2019, Nutritional, functional properties, glycemic index and glycemic load of indigenous rice from North and East Borneo, Food Res., 3 (5), 537–545.

[6] Ghasemzadeh, A., Karbalaii, M.T., Jaafar, H.Z.E., and Rahmat, A., 2018, Phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity, and antiproliferative properties of black, red, and brown rice bran, Chem. Cent. J., 12 (1), 17.

[7] Sompong, R., Siebenhandl-Ehn, S., Linsberger-Martin, G., and Berghofer, E., 2011, Physicochemical and antioxidative properties of red and black rice varieties from Thailand, China and Sri Lanka, Food Chem., 124 (1), 132–140.

[8] Thitipramote, N., Pradmeeteekul, P., Nimkamnerd, J., Chaiwut, P., Pintathong, P., and Thitilerdecha, N., 2016, Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of red (Brown Red Jasmine) and black (Kam Leum Pua) native pigmented rice, Int. Food Res. J., 23 (1), 410–414.

[9] Anggraeni, V.J., Ramdanawati, L., and Ayuantika, W., 2019, Optimization of total anthocyanin extraction from brown rice (Oryza nivara), J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 1338, 012006.

[10] Wahyuningsih, S., Wulandari, L., Wartono, M.W., Munawaroh, H., and Ramelan, A.H., 2017, The effect of pH and color stability of anthocyanin on food colorant, IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng., 193, 012047.

[11] Dyankova, S., and Doneva, M., 2016, Extraction and characterization of anthocyanin colorants from plant sources, AST, 8 (1), 85–89.

[12] Rukmana, R.M., Soesilo, N.P., Rumiyati, R., and Pratiwi, R., 2017, The effect of ethanolic extract of black and white rice bran (Oryza sativa L.) on cancer cells, Indones. J. Biotechnol., 21 (1), 63–69.

[13] Wu, H.Y., Yang, K.M., and Chiang, P.Y., 2018, Roselle anthocyanins: antioxidant properties and stability to heat and pH, Molecules, 23 (6), 1357.

[14] Ali, H.M., Almagribi, W., and Al-Rashidi, M.N., 2016, Antiradical and reductant activities of anthocyanidins and anthocyanins, structure-activity relationship and synthesis, Food Chem., 194, 1275–1282.

[15] Agustin, A.T., Safitri, A., and Fatchiyah, F., 2020, An in silico approach reveals the potential function of cyanidin-3-o-glucoside of red rice in inhibiting the advanced glycation end products (AGES)-receptor (RAGE) signaling pathway, Acta Inform. Med., 28 (3), 170–179.

[16] Sari, D.R.T., Cairns, J.R.K., Safitri, A., and Fatchiyah, F., 2019, Virtual prediction of the delphinidin-3-O-glucoside and peonidin-3-O-glucoside as anti-inflammatory of TNF-α signaling, Acta Inform. Med., 27 (3), 152–157.

[17] Rahayu, W.M., Astuti, M., and Marsono, Y., 2019, Improved hypoglycemic effect of anthocyanin extract combination from red rice and black soybean, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 1146, 012015.

[18] Fatchiyah, F., Sari, D.R.T., Safitri, A., and Cairns, J.R.K., 2020, Phytochemical compound and nutritional value in black rice from Java Island, Indonesia, Syst. Rev. Pharm., 11 (7), 414–421.

[19] Boue, S.M., Daigle, K.W., Chen, M.H., Cao, H., and Heiman, M.L., 2016, Antidiabetic potential of purple and red rice (Oryza sativa L.) bran extracts, J. Agric. Food Chem., 64 (26), 5345–5353.

[20] Khalil-Moghaddam, S., Ebrahim-Habibi, A., Pasalar, P., Yaghmaei, P., and Hayati-Roodbari, N., 2012, Reflection on design and testing of pancreatic alpha-amylase inhibitors: An in silico comparison between rat and rabbit enzyme models, Daru, J. Pharm. Sci., 20 (1), 77.

[21] Cirak, C., and Radusiene, J., 2019, Factors affecting the variation of bioactive compounds in Hypericum species, Biol. Futura, 70 (3), 198–209.

[22] Sadimantara, M.S.A., Asranudin, Holilah, Sadimantara, F.N., and Asyik, N., 2019, Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of red rice varieties of Wakawondu and Wangkariri from North Buton, Indonesia, Int. J. Sci. Technol. Res., 8 (8), 1623–1627.

[23] Kurnianingsih, N., Ratnawati, R., Fatchiyah, F., Barlianto, W., Ali, M.M., Safitri, A., and Suyanto, E., 2019, The difference of amino acid profiling from two morphological purple sweet potatoes from Kawi mountain cultivars, East Java, Indonesia, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 1374, 012017.

[24] Dini, C., Zaro, M.J., Rolny, N., Caputo, M., Boido, E., Dellacassa, E., and Viña, S.Z., 2020, Characterization and stability analysis of anthocyanins from Pachyrhizus ahipa (Wedd) Parodi roots, Food Biosci., 34, 100534.

[25] Laokuldilok, T., Shoemaker, C.F., Jongkaewwattana, S., and Tulyathan, V., 2011, Antioxidants and antioxidant activity of several pigmented rice brans, J. Agric. Food Chem., 59 (1), 193–199.

[26] Kazeem, M.I., Ogunbiyi, J.V., and Ashafa, A.O.T., 2013, In vitro studies on the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase by leaf extracts of Picralima nitida (Stapf), Trop. J. Pharm. Res., 12 (5), 719–725.

[27] Thaidi, N.I.A., Jusoh, H.M., Ghazali, A.B., Susanti, D., and Haron, N., 2020, The effect of bioactive polyphenols from Anacardium occidentale Linn. leaves on α-amylase and dipeptidyl peptidase IV activities, Indones. J. Chem., 20 (5), 1010–1017.

[28] Kulasinghe, A., Samarasinghe, G., Wimalasiri, S., Silva, R., and Madhujith, T., 2019, Macronutrient and Mineral Composition of Selected Traditional Rice Varieties in Sri Lanka, Proceedings of the International Conference on Food Quality, Safety and Security (FOOD QualSS 2018), Colombo, Sri Lanka, 24-25 October 2018.

[29] Wu, G., 2014, Dietary requirements of synthesizable amino acids by animals: A paradigm shift in protein nutrition, J. Anim. Sci. Biotechnol., 5 (1), 34.

[30] Khoo, H.E., Azlan, A., Tang, S.T., and Lim, S.M., 2017, Anthocyanidins and anthocyanins: colored pigments as food, pharmaceutical ingredients, and the potential health benefits, Food Nutr. Res., 61 (1), 1361779.

[31] Kumar, S., and Pandey, A.K., 2013, Chemistry and biological activities of flavonoids: An overview, Sci. World J., 2013, 162750.

[32] Namir, H., Hadžić, R., Malešević, I., Jurčević, M., and Starčević, D., 2019, Application of thin layer chromatography for qualitative analysis of gunpowder in purpose of life prediction of ammunition, Int. J. Biosens. Bioelectron., 5 (1), 4–12.

[33] Cretu, G.C., and Morlock, G.E., 2014, Analysis of anthocyanins in powdered berry extracts by planar chromatography linked with bioassay and mass spectrometry, Food Chem., 146, 104–112.

[34] Filip, M., Vlassa, M., Copaciu, F., and Coman, V., 2012, Identification of anthocyanins and anthocyanidins from berry fruits by chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques to establish the juice authenticity from market, JPC J. Planar Chromatogr. - Mod. TLC, 25 (6), 534–541.

[35] Syarifah, A.L., Retnowati, R., and Soebiantoro, S., 2019, Characterization of secondary metabolites profile of flavonoid from salam leaves (Eugenia polyantha) using TLC and UV spectrophotometry, Pharm. Sci. Res., 6 (3), 155–163.

[36] Jun, H.I., Song, G.S., Yang, E.I., Youn, Y., and Kim, Y.S., 2012, Antioxidant activities and phenolic compounds of pigmented rice bran extracts, J. Food Sci., 77 (7), C759–C764.

[37] Akkarachiyasit, S., Yibchok-Anun, S., Wacharasindhu, S., and Adisakwattana, S., 2011, In vitro inhibitory effects of cyandin-3-rutinoside on pancreatic α-amylase and its combined effect with acarbose, Molecules, 16 (3), 2075–2083.

[38] Sui, X., Zhang, Y., and Zhou, W., 2016, In vitro and in silico studies of the inhibition activity of anthocyanins against porcine pancreatic α-amylase, J. Funct. Foods, 21, 50–57.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 8496 | views : 6194

Copyright (c) 2021 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 /e-ISSN 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.