Utilization of Corn Oil through Water Degumming Process for Lecithin Emulsifier Production

https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.65195

Fahmi Arifan(1*), Muhammad Kelvin Nandita(2), Enrico Fendy Sapatra(3), Salsabila Salsabila(4)

(1) Department of Industrial Chemical Engineering Technology, Vocational School, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. H. Soedarto, SH, Tembalang, Semarang 50275, Central Java, Indonesia
(2) Department of Industrial Chemical Engineering Technology, Vocational School, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. H. Soedarto, SH, Tembalang, Semarang 50275, Central Java, Indonesia
(3) Department of Industrial Chemical Engineering Technology, Vocational School, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. H. Soedarto, SH, Tembalang, Semarang 50275, Central Java, Indonesia
(4) Department of Industrial Chemical Engineering Technology, Vocational School, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. H. Soedarto, SH, Tembalang, Semarang 50275, Central Java, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Lecithin is an emulsifier that plays an active role in reducing surface tension in making emulsions. The production of lecithin from other vegetable oils allows the use of other types of vegetable oil as a source of lecithin production to replace soy-based oil, which has begun to be used as a bioenergy raw material. This study aims to find an alternative source of new lecithin derived from corn oil by knowing the characteristics of lecithin and applied to mayonnaise. The resulting lecithin was used in mayonnaise with a 2 factorial randomized block design method consisting of 3 levels. Based on the results obtained, the characteristic of corn oil lecithin is that the largest content is hexadecanoic acid which is 44.79%, and the strongest vibration band is CH2 vibration with stretching modes of symmetry and asymmetry at 2922 and 2853 cm–1 and the terminal CH3 group in the 1374 cm–1. L3C3 treatment was the best result with 60% fat content, 4% emulsion stability, 2.12 cP viscosity, and 1.42 × 10–3 N/m surface tension and organoleptic showed a preference value, namely color 4.4 (like), taste 3.2 (sufficient like), smell 4 (like), and texture 3.80 (like it).


Keywords


corn lecithin; water degumming; mayonnaise

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


References

[1] Nissa, C., Arifan, F., Febrianto, R., Aditya, W., Dwimawanti, I.H., and Widyasmara, R.P., 2019, Effect of sugar on nutrient composition and shelf life of red guava jams, IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci., 406, 012027.

[2] Reckziegel, Y., 2015, Characterization and Comparison of The Functionality of Fractionated Lecithin from Different Sources, Thesis, Universiteit Gent, Ghent, Belgium.

[3] Robert, C., Couëdelo, L., Vaysse, C., and Michalski, M.C., 2020, Vegetable lecithins: A review of their compositional diversity, impact on lipid metabolism and potential in cardiometabolic disease prevention, Biochimie, 169, 121–132.

[4] Hamad, A., Septhea, G.A., and Ma’ruf, A., 2005, Kemampuan daya emulsifier corn lecithin yang dihasilkan dari water degumming process minyak jagung, J. Inov. Tek. Kim., 1 (2), 88–92.

[5] Thakur, S., and Gogate, P.R., 2020, Synthesis of Pd/C catalyst using formaldehyde reduction method and application for ultrasound assisted transfer hydrogenation of corn oil, Chem. Eng. Process., 152, 107939.

[6] Sun, X., Zhang, L., Tian, S., Yang, K., and Xie, J., 2020, Phospholipid composition and emulsifying properties of rice bran lecithin from enzymatic degumming, LWT, 117, 108588.

[7] Okuro, P.K., Gomes, A., Costa, A.L.R., Adame, M.A., and Cunha, R.L., 2019, Formation and stability of W/O-high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) and derived O/W emulsions stabilized by PGPR and lecithin, Food Res. Int., 122, 252–262.

[8] Tavernier, I., Wijaya, W., Van der Meeren, P., Dewettinck, K., and Patel, A.R., 2016, Food-grade particles for emulsion stabilization, Trends Food Sci. Technol., 50, 159–174.

[9] Evanuarini, H., Nurliyani, N., Indratiningsih, I., and Hastuti, P., 2019, Kestabilan emulsi dan oksidasi low fat mayonnaise menggunakan kefir sebagai alternatif emulsifier, JIIP, 29 (1), 83–94.

[10] Paisan, S., Chetpattananondh, P., and Chongkhong, S., 2017, Assessment of water degumming and acid degumming of mixed algal oil, J. Environ. Chem. Eng., 5 (5), 5115–5123.

[11] Balcaen, M., Steyls, J., Schoeppe, A., Nelis, V., and Van der Meeren, P., 2021, Phosphatidylcholine-depleted lecithin: A clean-label low-HLB emulsifier to replace PGPR in w/o and w/o/w emulsions, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 581, 836–846.

[12] Gunstone, F.D., 2011, “Production and Trade of Vegetable Oils” in Vegetable Oils in Food Technology: Composition, Properties and Uses, 2nd Ed., John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Hoboken, 1–24.

[13] Barrera-Arellano, D., Badan-Ribeiro, A.P., and Serna-Saldivar, S.O., 2018, “Corn Oil: Composition, Processing, and Utilization” in Corn, 3rd Ed., AACC International Press, Oxford, 593–613.

[14] Sadhukhan, S., Bhattacharjee, A., Sarkar, U., Baidya, P.K., and Baksi, S., 2018, Simultaneous degumming and production of a natural gum from Crotalaria juncea seeds: Physicochemical and rheological characterization, Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 111, 967–975.

[15] Nzai, J.M., and Proctor, A., 1999, Soy lecithin phospholipid determination by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the acid digest/arseno-molybdate method: A comparative study, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 76 (1), 61–66.

[16] Zaouadi, N., Cheknane, B., Hadj-Sadok, A., Canselier, J.P., and Hadj Ziane, A., 2015, Formulation and optimization by experimental design of low-fat mayonnaise based on soy lecithin and whey, J. Dispersion Sci. Technol., 36 (1), 94–102.

[17] Kim, J.S., Kim, M.J., and Lee, J.H., 2018, The critical micelle concentration of lecithin in bulk oils and medium chain triacylglycerol is influenced by moisture content and total polar materials, Food Chem., 261, 194–200.

[18] Fitriyaningtyas, S.I., and Widyaningsih, T.D., 2015, Pengaruh penggunaan lesitin dan CMC terhadap sifat fisik, kimia, dan organoleptik margarin sari apel manalagi (Malus sylfertris Mill) tersuplementasi minyak kacang tanah, Jurnal Pangan dan Agroindustri, 3 (1), 226–236.

[19] Gaonkar, G., Koka, R., Chen, K., and Campbell, B., 2010, Emulsifying functionality of enzyme-modified milk proteins in O/W and mayonnaise-like emulsions, Afr. J. Food Sci., 4 (1), 16–25.

[20] Delacharlerie, S., Petrut, R., Deckers, S., Flöter, E., Blecker, C., and Danthine, S., 2016, Structuring effects of lecithins on model fat systems: A comparison between native and hydrolyzed forms, LWT Food Sci. Technol., 72, 552–558.

[21] Setyawardhani, D.A., Sulistyo, H., Sediawan, W.B., and Fahrurrozi, M., 2016, Peranan waktu pengadukan terhadap karakteristik kompleksasi urea sebagai sarana pemisahan asam lemak omega dari minyak nabati, Reaktor, 16 (2), 81–86.

[22] Al-Bachir M.Z.R., 2006, Effect of gamma irradiation on some characteristics of shell eggs and mayonnaise prepared from irradiated from irradiated eggs, J. Food Saf., 26 (4), 348–360.

[23] Lachman, L., Lieberman, H.A., and Kanig, J.L., 1991, The Theory and Practice of Industrial Pharmacy, 3rd Ed., Varghese Publishing House, India.

[24] Erfando, T., Khalid, I., and Bahari, R., 2021, Experimental of alternative demulsifier formulation from corn oil in overcoming water-oil emulsion, Mater. Today: Proc., 39, 1061–1064.

[25] Thakur, S., and Gogate, P.R., 2020, Synthesis of Pd/C catalyst using formaldehyde reduction method and application for ultrasound assisted transfer hydrogenation of corn oil, Chem. Eng. Process., 152, 107939.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.65195

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1472 | views : 1063


Copyright (c) 2021 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

 


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 / 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Web
Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.