Ground State Energies of Helium-Like Ions Using a Simple Parameter-Free Matrix Method

Redi Kristian Pingak(1*), Atika Ahab(2), Utama Alan Deta(3)

(1) Department of Physics, Universitas Nusa Cendana, Jl. Adisucipto Penfui, Kupang 85001, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Indonesia
(2) Department of Physics, Universitas Nusa Cendana, Jl. Adisucipto Penfui, Kupang 85001, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Indonesia
(3) Department of Physics, Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Jl. Ketintang Gd C3 Lt 1, Surabaya 60231, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


This study aims to use hydrogenic orbitals within an analytic and numeric parameter-free truncated-matrix method to solve the projected Schrödinger equation of some Helium-like ions (3 ≤ Z ≤ 10). We also derived a new analytical expression of the ion ground state energies, which was simple and accurate and improved the accuracy of the analytic calculation, numerically using Mathematica. The standard matrix method was applied, where the wave function of the ions was expanded in a finite number of eigenvectors comprising hydrogenic orbitals. The Hamiltonian of the systems was calculated using the wave function and diagonalized to obtain their ground state energies. The results showed that a simple analytic expression of the ground state energies of He-like ions was successfully derived. Although the analytic expression was derived without involving any variational parameter, it was reasonably accurate with a 0.12% error for Ne8+ ion. From this method, the accuracy of the analytic energies was also numerically improved to 0.10% error for Ne8+ ion. The results clearly showed that the energies obtained using this method were more accurate than the hydrogenic perturbation theory and the uncertainty principle-variational approach. In addition, for Z > 4, our results were more accurate than those from the geometrical model.


helium-like ions; ground state energies; parameter-free matrix method; hydrogenic orbital approximation; projected Schrödinger equation

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