Growth, Electronic Structure, and Electrochemical Properties of Cubic BaTiO3 Synthesized by Low-Pressure Hydrothermal-Assisted Sintering

Mohammad Khotib(1*), Bambang Soegijono(2), Zainal Alim Mas'ud(3), Gina Libria Nadjamoeddin(4)

(1) Department of Chemistry, Bogor Agricultural University, Chemistry Building, Wing 1, 3rd Floor, Jl. Tanjung, IPB Darmaga Campus, Bogor 16680, Indonesia Laboratory for Testing, Calibration and Certification Services, Bogor Agricultural University, Baranangsiang Campus, Jl. Padjajaran, Bogor 16129, Indonesia
(2) Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus Baru UI, Depok 16424, Indonesia
(3) Department of Chemistry, Bogor Agricultural University, Chemistry Building, Wing 1, 3rd Floor, Jl. Tanjung, IPB Darmaga Campus, Bogor 16680, Indonesia Laboratory for Testing, Calibration and Certification Services, Bogor Agricultural University, Baranangsiang Campus, Jl. Padjajaran, Bogor 16129, Indonesia
(4) Laboratory for Testing, Calibration and Certification Services, Bogor Agricultural University, Baranangsiang Campus, Jl. Padjajaran, Bogor 16129, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


Cubic BaTiO3 was synthesized through low-pressure hydrothermal-assisted sintering using Ba(OH)2 and TiO2 as precursors with a mol ratio of Ba:Ti = 1.4:1. The single phase of cubic BaTiO3 was produced at a sintering temperature of 800 °C for 2, 4, 8, and 12 h. The absence of diffraction peak splitting at 2q of 45° was indicated cubic BaTiO3. The crystallite size of BaTiO3 ranged from 80–200 nm, and its size increased with increasing temperatures and sintering times. The micro-strain of the BaTiO3 crystal lattice had a range between 0.27 and 0.68%. The minimum bandgap on the indirect bandgap was about 1.75 eV from point M to Γ, while the direct bandgap was about 1.95 eV from Γ to Γ. Ti–O's interaction had a covalent character, while that of Ba–O had an ionic character based on the density of state (DOS) calculation. The characteristics of the BaTiO3 voltammogram show an irreversible redox mechanism with a more observable reduction peak in Ti4+/Ti3+. Higher current density at over potential indicated greater BaTiO3 capabilities in Oxygen Evolution Reaction (OER)-Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) electrocatalysis. For that, purified cubic BaTiO3 offers potential application as an electrode for batteries, water splitting systems, and regenerative fuel cells.


cubic BaTiO3; bandgap; the density of state; oxygen evolution-reduction; electrocatalyst


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