Synthesis of the Novel Nanocatalyst of Pt3Mo Nanoalloys on Ti0.8W0.2O2 via Hydrothermal and Microwave-Assisted Polyol Process

Anh Tram Ngoc Mai(1), Nguyen Khanh Pham(2), Kim Ngan Thi Tran(3), Van Thi Thanh Ho(4*)

(1) Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology, Vietnam National University-Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
(2) Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology, Vietnam National University-Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
(3) Institute of Environmental Sciences, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
(4) Ho Chi Minh City University of Natural Resources and Environment (HCMUNRE), Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
(*) Corresponding Author


Direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) attracts much attention due to its high abundance, environmental friendliness, and convenient transportation and storage. In this study, a novel catalyst of Pt3Mo alloy nanoparticles (NPs) on non-carbon Ti0.8W0.2O2  support was synthesized by microwave-assisted polyol process. The characteristic of Pt3Mo NPS/Ti0.8W0.2O2 catalyst was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. Pt3Mo NPs had an average diameter of approximate 5.18 nm and were uniformly anchored on Ti0.8W0.2O2 surface. The ratio of Mo in the Pt3Mo alloy was consistent with the theoretical value, which supported the effectiveness of the synthesis method. In addition, Pt3Mo/Ti0.8W0.2O2 electrocatalysts exhibited higher CO-like tolerance in methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) than commercial electrocatalysts, excellent catalytic activity, and strong durability after 2000 cycles. The synergistic effect of Pt-Mo alloy, and the strong interaction between the bimetallic Pt-Mo alloy and the mesoporous Ti0.8W0.2O2 support, could weaken the Pt-CO bond. Besides, the high corrosion resistance and superior electrochemical durability of TiO2-based oxide also contribute to the excellent stability of Pt3Mo/Ti0.8W0.2O2 electrocatalyst in harsh electrochemical media. These results revealed that this material could be a potential catalyst in DMFC technology.


bimetallic metal; Pt-Mo alloy; W-doped TiO2; microwave-assisted polyol process; hydrothermal

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Hsieh, B.J., Tsai, M.C., Pan, C.J., Su, W.N., Rick, J., Lee, J.F., Yang, Y.W., and Hwang, B.J., 2017, Platinum loaded on dual-doped TiO2 as an active and durable oxygen reduction reaction catalyst, NPG Asia Mater., 9 (7), e403.

[2] Pan, C.J., Tsai, M.C., Su, W.N., Rick, J., Akalework, N.G., Agegnehu, A.K., Cheng, S.Y., and Hwang, B.J., 2017, Tuning/exploiting strong metal-support interaction (SMSI) in heterogeneous catalysis, J. Taiwan Inst. Chem. Eng., 74, 154–186.

[3] Salam, M.A., Habib, M.S., Arefin, P., Ahmed, K., Uddin, M.S., Hossain, T., and Papri, N., 2020, Effect of temperature on the performance factors and durability of proton exchange membrane of hydrogen fuel cell: A narrative review, Mater. Sci. Res. India, 17 (2), 179–191.

[4] Shrivastava, N.K., and Harris, T.A.L., 2017, “Direct Methanol Fuel Cells” in Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technologies, Elsevier, Oxford, UK, 343–357.

[5] Sharma, S., and Pollet, B.G., 2012, Support materials for PEMFC and DMFC electrocatalysts—A review, J. Power Sources, 208, 96–119.

[6] Tamaki, T., Wang, H., Oka, N., Honma, I., Yoon, S.H., and Yamaguchi, T., 2018, Correlation between the carbon structures and their tolerance to carbon corrosion as catalyst supports for polymer electrolyte fuel cells, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 43 (12), 6406–6412.

[7] Zhao, J., and Li, X., 2019, A review of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell durability for vehicular applications: Degradation modes and experimental techniques, Energy Convers. Manage., 199, 112022.

[8] You, H., Zhang, F., Liu, Z., and Fang, J., 2014, Free-standing Pt–Au hollow nanourchins with enhanced activity and stability for catalytic methanol oxidation, ACS Catal., 4 (9), 2829–2835.

[9] Lee, E., Kim, S., Jang, J.H., Park, H.U., Matin, M.A., Kim, Y.T., and Kwon, Y.U., 2015, Effects of particle proximity and composition of Pt–M (M = Mn, Fe, Co) nanoparticles on electrocatalysis in methanol oxidation reaction, J. Power Sources, 294, 75–81.

[10] Huang, L., Zhang, X., Wang, Q., Han, Y., Fang, Y., and Dong, S., 2018, Shape-control of Pt–Ru nanocrystals: Tuning surface structure for enhanced electrocatalytic methanol oxidation, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 140 (3), 1142–1147.

[11] Manthiram, A., Zhao, X., and Li, W., 2012, “Developments in Membranes, Catalysts and Membrane Electrode Assemblies for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFCs)” in Functional Materials for Sustainable Energy Applications, Eds. Kilner, J.A., Skinner, S.J., Irvine, S.J.C., and Edwards, P.P., Woodhead Publishing, UK, 312–369.

[12] Hartmann, P., and Gerteisen, D., 2012, Local degradation analysis of a real long-term operated DMFC stack MEA, J. Power Sources, 219, 147–154.

[13] Moura, A.S., Fajín, J.L.C., Mandado, M., and Cordeiro, M.N.D.S., 2017, Ruthenium–platinum catalysts and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC): A review of theoretical and experimental breakthroughs, Catalysts, 7 (2), 47.

[14] Jing, F., Sun, R., Wang, S., Sun, H., and Sun, G., 2020, Effect of the anode structure on the stability of a direct methanol fuel cell, Energy Fuels, 34 (3), 3850–3857.

[15] Hassan, A., and Ticianelli, E.A., 2018, Activity and stability of dispersed multi metallic Pt-based catalysts for CO tolerance in proton exchange membrane fuel cell anodes, An. Acad. Bras. Cienc., 90, 697–718.

[16] Liu, Z., Ma, L., Zhang, J., Hongsirikarn, K., and Goodwin, J.G., 2013, Pt alloy electrocatalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cells: A review, Catal. Rev. Sci. Eng., 55 (3), 255–288.

[17] Liu, Y., Duan, Z., and Henkelman, G., 2019, Computational design of CO-tolerant Pt3M anode electrocatalysts for proton-exchange membrane fuel cells, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 21 (7), 4046–4052.

[18] Uwitonze, N., and Chen, Y.X., 2017, The study of Pt and Pd based anode catalysis for formic acid fuel cell, Chem. Sci. J., 8 (3), 1000167.

[19] Hassan, A., Carreras, A., Trincavelli, J., and Ticianelli, E.A., 2014, Effect of heat treatment on the activity and stability of carbon supported PtMo alloy electrocatalysts for hydrogen oxidation in proton exchange membrane fuel cells, J. Power Sources, 247, 712–720.

[20] Bang, J.H., and Kim, H.S., 2011, CO-tolerant PtMo/C fuel cell catalyst for H2 oxidation, Bull. Korean Chem. Soc., 32 (10), 3660–3665.

[21] Gao, J., Zou, J., Zeng, X., and Ding, W., 2016, Carbon supported nano Pt–Mo alloy catalysts for oxygen reduction in magnesium–air batteries, RSC Adv., 6 (86), 83025–83030.

[22] Hu, J.E., Liu, Z., Eichhorn, B.W., and Jackson, G.S., 2012, CO tolerance of nano-architectured Pt–Mo anode electrocatalysts for PEM fuel cells, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 37 (15), 11268–11275.

[23] Huynh, T.T., Pham, H.Q., Van Nguyen, A., Ngoc Mai, A.T., Nguyen, S.T., Bach, L.G., Vo, D.V.N., and Vo, D.V.N., 2019, High conductivity and surface area of Ti0.7W0.3O2 mesoporous nanostructures support for Pt toward enhanced methanol oxidation in DMFCs, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 44 (37), 20933–20943.

[24] Pham, H.Q., Huynh, T.T., Bich, H.N., Pham, T.M., and Nguyen, S.T., 2019, Tungsten-doped titanium-dioxide-supported low-Pt-loading electrocatalysts for the oxidation reaction of ethanol in acidic fuel cells, C.R. Chim., 22 (11-12), 829–837.

[25] Liu, Z., Hu, J.E., Wang, Q., Gaskell, K., Frenkel, A.I., Jackson, G.S., and Eichhorn, B., 2009, PtMo alloy and MoOx@Pt core−shell nanoparticles as highly CO-tolerant electrocatalysts, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 131 (20), 6924–6925.

[26] Lu, S., Eid, K., Lin, M., Wang, L., Wang, H., and Gu, H., 2016, Hydrogen gas-assisted synthesis of worm-like PtMo wavy nanowires as efficient catalysts for the methanol oxidation reaction, J. Mater. Chem. A, 4 (27), 10508–10513.

[27] Fıçıcılar, B., Bayrakçeken, A., and Eroğlu, İ., 2010, Pt incorporated hollow core mesoporous shell carbon nanocomposite catalyst for proton exchange membrane fuel cells, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 35 (18), 9924–9933.

[28] Hu, Y., Zhu, A., Zhang, Q., and Liu, Q., 2016, Preparation of PtRu/C core–shell catalyst with polyol method for alcohol oxidation, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 41 (26), 11359–11368.

[29] Chen, F., Ren, J., He, Q., Liu, J., and Song, R., 2017, Facile and one-pot synthesis of uniform PtRu nanoparticles on polydopamine-modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes for direct methanol fuel cell application, J. Colloid Interface Sci., 497, 276–283.

[30] Luo, Z., Yuwen, L., Bao, B., Tian, J., Zhu, X., Weng, L., and Wang, L., 2012, One-pot, low-temperature synthesis of branched platinum nanowires/reduced graphene oxide (BPtNW/RGO) hybrids for fuel cells, J. Mater. Chem., 22 (16), 7791–7796.

[31] Fu, G., Yan, X., Cui, Z., Sun, D., Xu, L., Tang, Y., Goodenough, J.B., and Lee, J.M., 2016, Catalytic activities for methanol oxidation on ultrathin CuPt3 wavy nanowires with/without smart polymer, Chem. Sci., 7 (8), 5414–5420.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 2839 | views : 1687

Copyright (c) 2022 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 /e-ISSN 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.