Impact of Anode Materials on Electrochemical Degradation of Carbamazepine: A Case Study of Producing the Main By-Product 10,11-Epoxycarbamazepine after Electrochemical Degradation of Carbamazepine

https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.71976

Zainab Haider Mussa(1), Fouad Fadhil Al-Qaim(2*)

(1) College of Pharmacy, University of Al-Ameed, PO Box 198, Karbala, Iraq
(2) Faculty of Medicine, University of Warith Al-Anbiyaa, Karbala, Iraq; Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science for Women, University of Babylon, PO Box 4, Hilla, Iraq; School of Chemical Science and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan, 43600, Malaysia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), platinum (Pt), and graphite (G)” have been applied to the electrochemical degradation of carbamazepine (CBZ) from its aqueous solution. The optimum results were observed with graphite anode as follows: fully complete removal of CBZ, 0.0758 min−1 rates constant, and 0.59 Wh/mg consumption energy under these conditions: 5 V, 0.5 g NaCl, and a graphite anode. Kinetics was also considered in the present study, in which rate constants ranged between 0.0023 and 0.0886 min−1. It was observed that applied voltage has an effect on consumption energy giving 0.34, 0.59, and 1.08 Wh/mg using 3, 5, and 7 V, respectively. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope (EDS) were used to characterize the organo-metallic precipitates which were formed using Ni and Cu anodes. The main by-product of 10,11-epoxycarbamazepine (EPX-CBZ) was elucidated and monitored using liquid chromatography-time of flight/mass spectrometry (LC-ToF/MS). Therefore, graphite is suggested to be a promising electrode in which it is exhibited good performance compared to other electrodes in terms of removal and consumption of energy.


Keywords


electrochemical degradation; carbamazepine; 10,11-epoxycarbamazepine; anode materials; graphite anode

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.71976

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