Simple Green Routes for Metal-Bixin Complexes Synthesis Using Glycerol-Based Deep Eutectic Solvent

Winda Rahmalia(1), Anis Shofiyani(2*), Yohana Sutiknyawati(3), Septiani Septiani(4)

(1) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Tanjungpura University, Jl. Prof. Dr. Hadari Nawawi, Pontianak 78124, West Kalimantan, Indonesia
(2) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Tanjungpura University, Jl. Prof. Dr. Hadari Nawawi, Pontianak 78124, West Kalimantan, Indonesia
(3) Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tanjungpura University, Jl. Prof. Dr. H. Hadari Nawawi, Pontianak 78124, West Kalimantan, Indonesia
(4) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Tanjungpura University, Jl. Prof. Dr. Hadari Nawawi, Pontianak 78124, West Kalimantan, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


Bixin is a natural dye belonging to the carotenoid group that has been reported to have many health benefits. In this work, for the first time, metal-bixin complexes were synthesized through a simple green route using deep eutectic solvent (DES) as reaction media. DES was produced by stirring choline chloride and glycerol with a molar ratio of 1:3. The metal-bixin complex was prepared by grinding and stirring bixin and divalent metal ions (Mg2+, Ca2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, separately) in DES at room temperature. DES formed in this work was a homogeneous colorless liquid with a freezing point below -20 °C. It has a pH, density, viscosity, and conductivity of 7.13, 148.99 cP, 1.207 g/cm3, and 1.8 mS/cm, respectively. UV-Vis spectrophotometric analysis shows that the absorption spectra produced by the Mg(II)-bixin, Ca(II)-bixin, Zn(II)-bixin, and Cu(II)-bixin complexes show an insignificant shift in the direction of a larger wavelength (red shift) compared to pure bixin. Spectral fine structure expressed as %III/II, i.e., the ratio of the height of the longest-wavelength absorption to the middle absorption peak. The value of %III/II for bixin, Mg(II)-bixin, Ca(II)-bixin, Zn(II)-bixin, and Cu(II)-bixin are 16.77, 20.37, 17.39, and 13.52%, respectively. The results of the FTIR spectra analysis confirmed that the bond between bixin and metal ions occurred in the carboxylate acid group, indicated by a decrease in the absorption intensity at wavenumber 3389 and 1716 cm−1.


bixin; carotenoid; deep eutectic solvent; dye; M(II)-bixin complex

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