The Addition of Copper Nanoparticles to Mineral Trioxide Aggregate for Improving the Physical and Antibacterial Properties

Muhammad Akram Fakhriza(1), Bambang Rusdiarso(2), Siti Sunarintyas(3), Nuryono Nuryono(4*)

(1) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(2) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(3) Department of Biomaterial, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Denta 1, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(4) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


The physical and antibacterial properties of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) have been improved by adding copper nanoparticles (CuNP). The CuNP colloid was synthesized by reacting CuCl2·2H2O and NaBH4 as the reducing agent using C6H8O6 as the capping agent. The Cu(II) concentration was varied by 3.0, 6.0, and 9.0 mM to produce CuNP-3, CuNP-6, and CuNP-9 colloids, respectively. The CuNP colloids were characterized with a UV-Vis spectrophotometer and TEM. MTA was hydrated with CuNP at a mass-to-volume ratio of 2:1 to produce Cu-MTA-3, Cu-MTA-6, and Cu-MTA-9, respectively. All products were characterized with XRD and SEM-EDX. The compressive strength, pH, Ca ion release, and solubility were measured, and antibacterial activity was tested. The results showed a spherical shape of the synthesized CuNP with a particle size of ~28.08 nm. Adding CuNP-9 to hydrated MTA increased the compressive strength, pH, Ca ion release, and solubility, with the value of 4.78±0.38 MPa; 9.01±0.03; 1718±63 ppm, and 22.48±0.37%, respectively. The highest antibacterial activity occurred for Cu-MTA-9, with an inhibition zone of 10.15±0.47 mm against S. aureus and 11.93±1.16 mm against P. aeruginosa. The findings show a potential application of the product for endodontic materials containing antibacterial agents.


antibacterial; copper nanoparticles; physical properties; MTA

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


[1] Napitupulu, R.L.Y., Adhani, R., and Erlita, I., 2019, Hubungan perilaku menyikat gigi, keasaman air, pelayanan kesehatan gigi terhadap karies di MAN 2 Batola, Dentin, 1 (3), 17–22.

[2] Bachtiar, Z.A., 2016, Perawatan saluran akar pada gigi permanen anak dengan bahan gutta percha, Jurnal PDGI, 2 (65), 60–67.

[3] Patel, N., Patel, K., Baba, S.M., Jaiswal, S., Venkataraghavan, K., and Jani, M., 2014, Comparing gray and white mineral trioxide aggregate as a repair material for furcation perforation: An in vitro dye extraction study, J. Clin. Diagn. Res., 8 (10), ZC70–ZC73.

[4] Butt, N., Talwar, S., Chaudhry, S., Nawal, R.R., Yadav, S., and Bali, A., 2017, Comparison of physical and mechanical properties of mineral trioxide aggregate and biodentine, Indian J. Dent. Res., 25 (6), 692–697.

[5] Kaur, M., Singh, H., Dhillon, J.S., Batra, M., and Saini, M., 2017, MTA versus biodentine: Review of literature with a comparative analysis, J. Clin. Diagn. Res., 11 (8), ZG01–ZG05.

[6] Mohammadi, Z., Giardino, L., Palazzi, F., and Shalavi, S., 2012, Antibacterial activity of a new mineral trioxide aggregate-based root canal sealer, Int. Dent. J., 62 (2), 70–73.

[7] Gürel, M., Demiryürek, E.Ö., Özyürek, T., and Gülhan, T., 2016, Antimicrobial activities of different bioceramic root canal sealers on various bacterial species, Int. J. Appl. Dent. Sci., 2, 19–22.

[8] Akhidime, D., Saubade, F., Benson, P., Butler, J., Olivier, S., Kelly, P., Verran, J., and Whitehead, K., 2018, The antimicrobial effect of metal substrates on food pathogens, Food Bioprod. Process., 113, 68–76.

[9] Ghasemian, E., Naghoni, A., Rahvar, H., Kialha, M., and Tabaraie, B., 2015, Evaluating the effect of copper nanoparticles in inhibiting Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Listeria monogtogenes biofilm formation, Jundishapur J. Microbiol., 8 (5), e17430.

[10] Nazer, A., Payá, J., Borrachero, M.V., and Monzó, J., 2016, Use of ancient copper slags in Portland cement and alkali activated cement matrices, J. Environ. Manage., 167, 115–123.

[11] Liu, S., Li, Q., and Zhao, X., 2018, Hydration kinetics of composite cementitious materials containing copper tailing powder and graphene oxide, Materials, 11 (12), 2499.

[12] Saghiri, M.A., Kazerani, H., Morgano, S.M., and Gutmann, J.L., 2020, Evaluation of mechanical activation and chemical synthesis for particle size modification of white mineral trioxide aggregate, Eur. Endod. J., 5 (2), 128–133.

[13] Yuliatun, L., Kunarti, E.S., Widjijono, W., and Nuryono, N., 2022, Enhancing compressive strength and dentin interaction of mineral trioxide aggregate by adding SrO and hydroxyapatite, Indones. J. Chem., 22 (6), 1651–1662.

[14] Lim, M., and Yoo, S., 2022, The antibacterial activity of mineral trioxide aggregate containing calcium fluoride, J. Dent. Sci., 17 (2), 836–841.

[15] Bolhari, B., Sooratgar, A. Pourhajibagher, M., Chitsaz, N., and Hamraz, I., 2021, Evaluation of the antimicrobial effect of mineral trioxide aggregate mixed with fluorohydroxyapatite against E. faecalis in vitro, Sci. World J., 2021, 6318690.

[16] Pushpa, S., Maheshwari, C., Maheshwari, G., Sridevi, N., Duggal, P., and Ahuja, P., 2018, Effect of pH on solubility of white mineral trioxide aggregate and biodentine: An in vitro study, J. Dent. Res. Dent. Clin. Dent. Prospects, 12 (3), 201–207.

[17] Cerda, J.S., Gomez, H.E., Nunez, G.A., Rivero, I.A., Ponce, Y.G., and Lopez, L.Z.F., 2017, A green synthesis of copper nanoparticles using native cyclodextrins as stabilizing agents, J. Saudi Chem. Soc., 21 (3), 341–348.

[18] Suprapto, S., Handoyo, C.A.H., Senja, P.A., Ramadhan, V.B., and Ni’mah, Y.L., 2020, Synthesis of copper nanoparticles using Chromolaena odorata (L.) leaf extract as a stabilizing agent, Indones. J. Chem. Anal., 3 (1), 9–16.

[19] Camilleri, J., 2007, Hydration mechanism of mineral trioxide aggregate, Int. Endod. J., 40 (6), 462–470.

[20] Akhavan, H., Mohebbi, P., Firouzi, A., and Noroozi, M., 2015, X-ray Diffraction analysis of ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate hydrated at different pH values, Iran. Endod. J., 11 (2), 111–113.

[21] Wang, X., 2017, Effects of Nanoparticles on the Properties of Cement-Based Materials, Dissertation, Civil Engineering Iowa State University, Iowa, US.

[22] Altan, H., and Tosun, G., 2016, The setting mechanism of mineral trioxide aggregate, J. Istanbul Univ. Fac. Dent., 50 (1), 65–72.

[23] Sobhnamayan, F., Adl, A., Shojaee, N.S., Sedigh-Shams, M., and Zarghami, E., 2017, Compressive strength of mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium-enriched mixture cement mixed with propylene glycol, Iran. Endod. J., 12 (4), 493–496.

[24] Akbari, M., Zebarjad, S.M., Nategh, B., and Roubani, R., 2013, Effect of nano silica on setting time and physical properties of mineral trioxide aggregate, J. Endod., 39 (11), 1448–1451.

[25] Nazari, A., and Riahi, S., 2011, Effects of CuO nanoparticles on compressive strength of self-compacting concrete, Sādhanā, 36 (3), 371–391.

[26] Farrugia, C., Baca, P., Camilleri, J., and Arias Moliz, M.T., 2017, Antimicrobial activity of ProRoot MTA in contact with blood, Sci. Rep., 7, 41359.

[27] Abu Zeid, S.T.H., Alothmani, O.S., and Yousef, M.K., 2015, Biodentine and mineral trioxide aggregate: An analysis of solubility, pH changes, and leaching element, Life Sci. J., 12 (4), 18–23.

[28] Wibowo, M.W.A., Yunita, A.I., Mukaromah, L., Kartini, I., and Nuryono, N., 2022, Effect of titania and silver nanoparticles on the tensile strength of cement-like mineral trioxide aggregate, Mater. Sci. Forum, 1068, 183–188.

[29] Al-Sanabani, J.S., Madfa, A.A., and Al-Sanabani, F.A., 2013, Application of calcium phospate materials in dentistry, Int. J. Biomater., 2013, 876132.

[30] Dewiyani, S., 2011, Calcium hydroxide as intracanal dressing for teeth with apical periodontitis, Dent. J., 44 (1), 12–16.

[31] Yamin, I.F., and Natsir, N., 2014, Bakteri dominan di saluran akar gigi nekrosis, Dentofasial, 13 (2), 113–116.

[32] Valero, A., Pérez-Rodríguez, F., Carrasco, E., Fuentes-Alventosa, J.M., García-Gimeno, R.M., and Zurera, G., 2009, Modelling the growth boundaries of Staphylococcus aureus: Effect of temperature, pH and water activity, Int. J. Food Microbiol., 133 (1-2), 186–194.

[33] Klein, S., Lorenzo, C., Hoffmann, S., Walther, J.M., Storbeck, S., Piekarski, T., Tindall, B.J., Wray, V., Nimtz, M., and Moser, J., 2009, Adaptation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to various conditions includes tRNA-dependent formation of alanyl-phosphatidylglycerol, Mol. Microbiol., 71 (3), 551–565.

[34] Yadav, L., Tripathi, R.M., Prasad, R., Pudake, R.N., and Mittal, J., 2017, Antibacterial Activity of Cu Nanoparticles against E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Nano Biomed. Eng., 9 (1), 9–14.

[35] Brooks, G.F., Carroll, K.C., Butel, J.S., and Morse, S.A., 2007, Medical Microbiology, McGraw-Hill Medical, New York, US.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1222 | views : 846

Copyright (c) 2023 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 /e-ISSN 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.