Recent Advancement and Emerging Applications of Lignin

https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.88535

Tanu Mittal(1), Rishi Kant(2), Yogesh Bhalla(3), Mohit Kumar Goel(4*)

(1) School of Natural Sciences, GNA University, Phagwara, Punjab 144401, India
(2) School of Natural Sciences, GNA University, Phagwara, Punjab 144401, India
(3) School of Natural Sciences, GNA University, Phagwara, Punjab 144401, India
(4) School of Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Lovely Professional University, Punjab 144411, India
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Lignin is a significant renewable natural energy resource these days, used as an environmentally acceptable and sustainable alternative fossil fuel feedstock in a huge possibility of value-added products. Lignin is a polymeric molecule that possesses an aromatic unit structure, together with cellulose, and is a main component of the cell walls of plants. It is the byproduct of agriculture residues and biorefinery products and can be extracted from paper-pulp industries. Properties of lignin may differ depending on the extraction method and source and also on an aromatic ring as the main constituent of lignin in the structure. This rare composition of lignin makes it more valuable, allowing for value-added applications such as in the field of storage devices and energy harvesters. This review focuses on derivatives of lignin, structure and composition sources and characteristics, and its sustainable emerging application in various fields are discussed.


Keywords


lignin-biopolymer; bio-fuel; renewable energy; sensors

Full Text:

Full Text PDF


References

[1] Chen, Z., Ragauskas, A., and Wan, C., 2020, Lignin extraction and upgrading using deep eutectic solvents, Ind. Crops Prod., 147, 112241.

[2] Rinaldi, R., Jastrzebski, R., Clough, M.T., Ralph, J., Kennema, M., Bruijnincx, P.C.A., and Weckhuysen, B.M., 2016, Paving the way for lignin valorisation: Recent advances in bioengineering, biorefining and catalysis, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed., 55 (29), 8164–8215.

[3] Lupoi, J.S., Singh, S., Parthasarathi, R., Simmons, B.A., and Henry, R.J., 2015, Recent innovations in analytical methods for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of lignin, Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 49, 871–906.

[4] Hassanpour, M., Abbasabadi, M., Gebbie, L., Te’o, V.S.J., O’Hara, I.M., and Zhang, Z., 2020, Acid-catalyzed glycerol pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse: Understanding the properties of lignin and its effects on enzymatic hydrolysis, ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng., 8 (28), 10380–10388.

[5] Saratale, R.G., Saratale, G.D., Shin, H.S., Jacob, J.M., Pugazhendhi, A., Bhaisare, M., and Kumar, G., 2018, New insights on the green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles using plant and waste biomaterials: Current knowledge, their agricultural and environmental applications, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 25 (11), 10164–10183.

[6] Ma, R., Guo, M., and Zhang, X., 2018, Recent advances in oxidative valorization of lignin, Catal. Today, 302, 50–60.

[7] Borges, C.S.P., Akhavan-Safar, A., Marques, E.A.S., Carbas, R.J.C., Ueffing, C., Weißgraeber, P., and da Silva, L.F., 2021, Effect of water ingress on the mechanical and chemical properties of polybutylene terephthalate reinforced with glass fibers, Materials, 14 (5), 1261.

[8] Saha, K., Dwibedi, P., Ghosh, A., Sikder, J., Chakraborty, S., and Curcio, S., 2018 Extraction of lignin, structural characterization and bioconversion of sugarcane bagasse after ionic liquid assisted pretreatment, 3 Biotech, 8 (8), 374.

[9] Qiu, Z., Aita, G.M., and Walker, M.S., 2012, Effect of ionic liquid pretreatment on the chemical composition, structure and enzymatic hydrolysis of energy cane bagasse, Bioresour. Technol., 117, 251–256.

[10] Moghaddam, L., Zhang, Z., Wellard, R.M., Bartley, J.P., O'Hara, I.M., and Doherty, W.O., 2014, Characterisation of lignins isolated from sugarcane bagasse pretreated with acidified ethylene glycol and ionic liquids, Biomass Bioenergy, 70, 498–512.

[11] Li, Y., Li, F., Yang, Y., Ge, B., and Meng, F., 2021, Research and application progress of lignin-based composite membrane, J. Polym. Eng., 41 (4), 245–258.

[12] Norgren, M., and Edlund, H., 2014, Lignin: Recent advances and emerging applications, Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci., 19 (5), 409–416.

[13] Wu, X., Jiang, J., Wang, C., Liu, J., Pu, Y., Ragauskas, A., Li, S., and Yang, B., 2020, Lignin-derived electrochemical energy materials and systems, Biofuels, Bioprod. Biorefin., 14 (3), 650–672.

[14] Zhu, J., Yan, C., Zhang, X., Yang, C., Jiang, M., and Zhang, X., 2020, A sustainable platform of lignin: From bioresources to materials and their applications in rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., 76, 100788.

[15] Liu, H., Xu, T., Liu, K., Zhang, M., Liu, W., Li, H., Du, H., and Si, C., 2021, Lignin-based electrodes for energy storage application, Ind. Crops Prod., 165, 113425.

[16] Chaleawlert‐umpon, S., Berthold, T., Wang, X., Antonietti, M., and Liedel, C., 2017, Kraft lignin as electrode material for sustainable electrochemical energy storage, Adv. Mater. Interfaces, 4 (23), 1700698.

[17] Khan, N., Ali, S., Latif, S., and Mehmood, A., 2022, Biological synthesis of nanoparticles and their applications in sustainable agriculture production, Nat. Sci., 14 (6), 226–234.

[18] Hernández‐Díaz, J.A., Garza‐García, J.J.O., Zamudio‐Ojeda, A., León‐Morales, J.M., López‐Velázquez, J.C., and García‐Morales, S., 2021, Plant‐mediated synthesis of nanoparticles and their antimicrobial activity against phytopathogens, J. Sci. Food Agric., 101 (4), 1270–1287.

[19] Lee, S.C., Yoo, E., Lee, S.H., and Won, K., 2020, Preparation and application of light-colored lignin nanoparticles for broad-spectrum sunscreens, Polymers, 12 (3), 699.

[20] Watkins, D., Nuruddin, M., Hosur, M., Tcherbi-Narteh, A., and Jeelani, S., 2015, Extraction and characterization of lignin from different biomass resources, J. Mater. Res. Technol., 4 (1), 26–32.

[21] Weng, J.K., and Chapple, C., 2010, The origin and evolution of lignin biosynthesis, New Phytol., 187 (2), 273–285.

[22] Sharma, A., Kaur, P., Singh, G., and Arya, S.K., 2021, Economical concerns of lignin in the energy sector, Cleaner Eng. Technol., 4, 100258.

[23] Zhao, Y., Shakeel, U., Saif Ur Rehman, M., Li, H., Xu, X., and Xu, J., 2020, Lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCCs) and its role in biorefinery, J. Cleaner Prod., 253, 120076.

[24] Du, X., Gellerstedt, G., and Li, J., 2013, Universal fractionation of lignin–carbohydrate complexes (LCC s) from lignocellulosic biomass: an example using spruce wood, Plant J., 74 (2), 328–338.

[25] Melro, E., Filipe, A., Sousa, D., Medronho, B., and Romano, A., 2021, Revisiting lignin: A tour through its structural features, characterization methods and applications, New J. Chem., 45 (16), 6986–7013.

[26] Komisarz, K., Majka, T.M., and Pielichowski, K., 2022, Chemical and physical modification of lignin for green polymeric composite materials, Materials, 16 (1), 16.

[27] Ralph, J., Lapierre, C., and Boerjan, W., 2019, Lignin structure and its engineering, Curr. Opin. Biotechnol., 56, 240–249.

[28] Zhang, K., Xu, R., Abomohra, A.E.F., Xie, S., Yu, Z., Guo, Q., Liu, P., Peng, L., and Li, X., 2019, A sustainable approach for efficient conversion of lignin into biodiesel accompanied by biological pretreatment of corn straw, Energy Convers. Manage., 199, 111928.

[29] Kocaturk, E., Salan, T., Ozcelik, O., Alma, M.H., and Candan, Z., 2023, Recent advances in lignin-based biofuel production, Energies, 16 (8), 3382.

[30] Figueiredo, P., Lintinen, K., Hirvonen, J.T., Kostiainen, M.A., and Santos, H.A., 2018, Properties and chemical modifications of lignin: Towards lignin-based nanomaterials for biomedical applications, Prog. Mater. Sci., 93, 233–269.

[31] Kim, K.H., and Yoo, C.G., 2021, Challenges and perspective of recent biomass pretreatment solvents, Front. Chem. Eng., 3, 785709.

[32] Stewart, D., 2008, Lignin as a base material for materials applications: Chemistry, application and economics, Ind. Crops Prod., 27 (2), 202–207.

[33] Beaucamp, A., Muddasar, M., Amiinu, I.S., Moraes Leite, M., Culebras, M., Latha, K., Gutiérrez, M.C., Rodriguez-Padron, D., del Monte, F., Kennedy, T., Ryan, K.M., Luque, R., Titirici, M.M., and Collins, M.N., 2022, Lignin for energy applications–state of the art, life cycle, technoeconomic analysis and future trends, Green Chem., 24 (21), 8193–8226.

[34] Bruijnincx, P.C.A., Rinaldi, R., and Weckhuysen, B.M., 2015, Unlocking the potential of a sleeping giant: Lignins as sustainable raw materials for renewable fuels, chemicals and materials, Green Chem., 17 (11), 4860–4861.

[35] Fang, W., Yang, S., Wang, X.L., Yuan, T.Q., and Sun, R.C., 2017, Manufacture and application of lignin-based carbon fibers (LCFs) and lignin-based carbon nanofibers (LCNFs), Green Chem., 19 (8), 1794–1827.

[36] Li, Q., Xie, S., Serem, W.K., Naik, M.T., Liu, L., and Yuan, J.S., 2017, Quality carbon fibers from fractionated lignin, Green Chem., 19 (7), 1628–1634.

[37] Zhang, R., Du, Q., Wang, L., Zheng, Z., Guo, L., Zhang, X., Yang, X., and Yu, H., 2019, Unlocking the response of lignin structure for improved carbon fiber production and mechanical strength, Green Chem., 21 (18), 4981–4987.

[38] Akao, Y., Seki, N., Nakagawa, Y., Yi, H., Matsumoto, K., Ito, Y., Ito, K., Funaoka, M., Maruyama, W., Naoi, M., and Nozawa, Y., 2004, A highly bioactive lignophenol derivative from bamboo lignin exhibits a potent activity to suppress apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, Bioorg. Med. Chem., 12 (18), 4791–4801.

[39] Abe, M.M., Martins, J.R., Sanvezzo, P.B., Macedo, J.V., Branciforti, M.C., Halley, P., Botaro, V.R., and Brienzo, M., 2021, Advantages and disadvantages of bioplastics production from starch and lignocellulosic components, Polymers, 13 (15), 2484.

[40] Chong, T.Y., Law, M.C., and Chan, Y.S., 2021, The potentials of corn waste lignocellulosic fibre as an improved reinforced bioplastic composites, J. Polym. Environ., 29 (2), 363–381.

[41] Coppola, G., Gaudio, M.T., Lopresto, C.G., Calabro, V., Curcio, S., and Chakraborty, S., 2021, Bioplastic from renewable biomass: A facile solution for a greener environment, Earth Syst. Environ., 5 (2), 231–251.

[42] Ani, J.U., Akpomie, K.G., Okoro, U.C., Aneke, L.E., Onukwuli, O.D., and Ujam, O.T., 2020, Potentials of activated carbon produced from biomass materials for sequestration of dyes, heavy metals, and crude oil components from aqueous environment, Appl. Water Sci., 10 (2), 69.

[43] Gadhave, R.V., Srivastava, S., Mahanwar, P.A., and Gadekar, P.T., 2019, Lignin: Renewable raw material for adhesive, Open J. Polym. Chem., 9 (2), 27–38.

[44] Khan, T.A., Lee, J.H., and Kim, H.J., 2019, “Lignin-based adhesives and coatings” in Lignocellulose for Future Bioeconomy, Eds. Ariffin, H., Sapuan, S.M., and Hassan, M.A., Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 153–206.

[45] Gong, X., Liu, T., Yu, S., Meng, Y., Lu, J., Cheng, Y., and Wang, H., 2020, The preparation and performance of a novel lignin-based adhesive without formaldehyde, Ind. Crops Prod., 153, 112593.

[46] Yang, S., Wu, J.Q., Zhang, Y., Yuan, T.Q., and Sun, R.C., 2015, Preparation of lignin-phenol-formaldehyde resin adhesive based on active sites of technical lignin, J. Biobased Mater. Bioenergy, 9 (2), 266–272.

[47] Murase, K., Morrison, K.L., Tam, P.Y., Stafford, R.L., Jurnak, F., and Weiss, G.A., 2003, EF-Tu binding peptides identified, dissected, and affinity optimized by phage display, Chem. Biol., 10 (2), 161–168.

[48] Cerrutti, B.M., Moraes, M.L., Pulcinelli, S.H., and Santilli, C.V., 2015, Lignin as immobilization matrix for HIV p17 peptide used in immunosensing, Biosens. Bioelectron., 71, 420–426.

[49] Budnyak, T.M., Slabon, A., and Sipponen, M.H., 2020, Lignin–inorganic interfaces: Chemistry and applications from adsorbents to catalysts and energy storage materials, ChemSusChem, 13 (17), 4344–4355.

[50] Wang, D., Lee, S.H., Kim, J., and Park, C.B., 2020, “Waste to wealth”: Lignin as a renewable building block for energy harvesting/storage and environmental remediation, ChemSusChem, 13 (11), 2807–2827.

[51] Gale, M., Cai, C.M., and Gilliard‐Abdul‐Aziz, K.L., 2020, Heterogeneous catalyst design principles for the conversion of lignin into high‐value commodity fuels and chemicals, ChemSusChem, 13 (8), 1947–1966.

[52] Kärkäs, M.D., Matsuura, B.S., Monos, T.M., Magallanes, G., and Stephenson, C.R.J., 2016, Transition-metal catalyzed valorization of lignin: The key to a sustainable carbon-neutral future, Org. Biomol. Chem., 14 (6), 1853–1914.

[53] Moreno, A., and Sipponen, M.H., 2020, Lignin-based smart materials: A roadmap to processing and synthesis for current and future applications, Mater. Horiz., 7 (9), 2237–2257.

[54] Kai, D., Tan, M.J., Chee, P.L., Chua, Y.K., Yap, Y.L., and Loh, X.J., 2016, Towards lignin-based functional materials in a sustainable world, Green Chem., 18 (5), 1175–1200.

[55] Park, Y., and Lee, J.S., 2017, Flexible multistate data storage devices fabricated using natural lignin at room temperature, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 9 (7), 6207–6212.

[56] Mwithiga, G., 2013, The potential for second generation bio-ethanol production from agro-industrial waste in South Africa, Afr. J. Biotechnol., 2 (9), 871–879.

[57] Kant, R., and Maji, S., 2023, Synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of piperazine embedded copper complexes, Inorg. Chim. Acta, 552, 121515.

[58] Kalidasan, B., Deepika, K., Shankar, R., Pandey, A.K., Shahabuddin, S., Kothari, R., Agarwal, P., and Sharma, K., 2023, Reduction of emission gas concentration from coal based thermal power plant using full combustion and partial oxidation system, J. Eng. Res.,11 (1B), 197–211.

[59] Mc Crudden, M.T., Larrañeta, E., Clark, A., Jarrahian, C., Rein-Weston, A., Lachau-Durand, S., Niemeijer, N., Williams, P., Haeck, C., McCarthy, H.O., Zehrung, D., and Donnelly, R.F., 2018, Design, formulation and evaluation of novel dissolving microarray patches containing a long-acting rilpivirine nanosuspension, J. Controlled Release, 292, 119–129.

[60] Saravanan, A., Kumar, P.S., and Renita, A.A., 2018, Hybrid synthesis of novel material through acid modification followed ultrasonication to improve adsorption capacity for zinc removal, J. Cleaner Prod., 172, 92–105.

[61] Doshi, B., Ayati, A., Tanhaei, B., Repo, E., and Sillanpää, M., 2018, Partially carboxymethylated and partially cross-linked surface of chitosan versus the adsorptive removal of dyes and divalent metal ions, Carbohydr. Polym., 197, 586–597.

[62] Farhat, W., Venditti, R., Mignard, N., Taha, M., Becquart, F., and Ayoub, A., 2017, Polysaccharides and lignin based hydrogels with potential pharmaceutical use as a drug delivery system produced by a reactive extrusion process, Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 104, 564–575.

[63] Ma, Q., Yu, Y., Sindoro, M., Fane, A.G., Wang, R., and Zhang, H., 2017, Carbon-based functional materials derived from waste for water remediation and energy storage, Adv. Mater., 29 (13), 1605361.

[64] Xu, K., Li, L., Huang, Z., Tian, Z., and Li, H., 2022, Efficient adsorption of heavy metals from wastewater on nanocomposite beads prepared by chitosan and paper sludge, Sci. Total Environ., 846, 157399.

[65] Zięzio, M., Charmas, B., Jedynak, K., Hawryluk, M., and Kucio, K., 2020, Preparation and characterization of activated carbons obtained from the waste materials impregnated with phosphoric acid(V), Appl. Nanosci., 10 (12), 4703–4716.

[66] Beri, A., Kant, R., Bhalla, Y., Mittal, T., Aggarwal, N., Behal, I., Latchireddi, B., and Dhara, A., 2023, Effect on CMC of sodium dodecyl benzene sulphate (SDBS) in the presence of alcohols and its derivatives at different temperatures, Eur. Chem. Bull, 12 (7), 1490–1506.

[67] Zhou, X., Chen, X., Han, W., Han, Y., Guo, M., Peng, Z., Fan, Z., Shi, Y., and Wan, S., 2022, Tetracycline removal by hercynite-biochar from the co-pyrolysis of red mud-steel slag-sludge, Nanomaterials, 12 (15), 2595.

[68] Jiang, X., Lu, W.X., Zhao, H.Q., Yang, Q.C., and Yang, Z.P., 2014, Potential ecological risk assessment and prediction of soil heavy-metal pollution around coal gangue dump, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 14 (6), 1599–1610.

[69] Wang, H., Qiu, X., Zhong, R., Fu, F., Qian, Y., and Yang, D., 2017, One-pot in-situ preparation of a lignin-based carbon/ZnO nanocomposite with excellent photocatalytic performance, Mater. Chem. Phys., 199, 193–202.

[70] Ibhadon, A.O., and Fitzpatrick, P., 2013, Heterogeneous photocatalysis: Recent advances and applications, Catalysts, 3 (1), 189–218.

[71] Zhang, W., Qiu, X., Wang, C., Zhong, L., Fu, F., Zhu, J., Zhang, Z., Qin, Y., Yang, D., and Xu, C.C., 2022, Lignin derived carbon materials: Current status and future trends, Carbon Res., 1 (1), 1–39.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.88535

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 124 | views : 50


Copyright (c) 2023 Indonesian Journal of Chemistry

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

 


Indonesian Journal of Chemistry (ISSN 1411-9420 /e-ISSN 2460-1578) - Chemistry Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.

Web
Analytics View The Statistics of Indones. J. Chem.