Modification of Natural Zeolite from Klaten, Indonesia Using Ammonium Chloride by Ion-Exchange and Its Application as Catalyst in Ethanol Dehydration to Produce Diethyl Ether

https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.90279

Zaira Adila(1), Wega Trisunaryanti(2*), Triyono Triyono(3)

(1) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(2) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(3) Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Modification of a natural zeolite from Klaten, Indonesia, as a catalyst in the dehydration of ethanol to produce diethyl ether (DEE) has been conducted. Raw Klaten natural zeolite (ZA) was modified using 1 and 2 M of an ammonium chloride solution for 24 h while stirring for 18 h, then calcined at 500 °C for 5 h under N2 gas flow produced HZA1 and HZA2 catalyst, respectively. The catalysts were characterized using XRD, BET surface area, SEM-EDX, XRF, FTIR and gravimetric acidity test using ammonia-based vapor. The dehydration process was conducted under variations of temperature (200, 250, and 300 °C) and catalyst mass of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 g for 20 mL of 96% ethanol. The HZA1 catalyst produced the highest yield of DEE (2.41%) at 250 °C and 0.1 g catalyst. This catalyst showed needle-like of 66.22 nm crystal size, consisting of 32.57% mordenite, the highest surface area (48.32 m2/g), crystallinity (32.93%) and Brønsted acid sites (2.75 mmol/g), the lowest pore diameter (1.77 nm) and Si/Al mol ratio (4.03). The HZA1 catalyst can be used repetitively and produced DEE yield at the second and third runs (2.40 and 2.61%).


Keywords


ammonium chloride; biofuel; diethyl ether; ethanol dehydration; zeolite

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ijc.90279

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