Anemia pada ibu hamil peserta Program 1000 Hari Pertama Kehidupan di Agats, Asmat, Papua: Prevalensi dan analisis faktor risiko

https://doi.org/10.22146/jcoemph.39261

Pritania Astari(1*), Hanggoro Tri Rinonce(2), Maria Fransiska Pudjohartono(3), Josephine Debora(4), Monica Gisela Winata(5), Fadli Kasim(6)

(1) Program Studi Profesi Dokter, Fakultas Kedokteran, Kesehatan Masyarakat, dan Keperawatan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(2) Departemen Patologi Anatomik, Fakultas Kedokteran, Kesehatan Masyarakat, dan Keperawatan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(3) Program Studi Profesi Dokter, Fakultas Kedokteran, Kesehatan Masyarakat, dan Keperawatan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(4) Program Studi Profesi Dokter, Fakultas Kedokteran, Kesehatan Masyarakat, dan Keperawatan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(5) Program Studi Profesi Dokter, Fakultas Kedokteran, Kesehatan Masyarakat, dan Keperawatan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(6) Departemen Teknik Nuklir dan Teknik Fisika, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


ABSTRAK Pada tahun 2013, terdapat 37% kasus anemia pada ibu hamil di Indonesia. Kejadiannya di Agats, Asmat, Papua masih merupakan fenomena gunung es yang belum banyak mendapat sorotan. Pusat Kesehatan Masyarakat (Puskesmas) Agats menjalankan Program 1000 Hari Pertama Kehidupan (HPK) sejak tahun 2016 untuk meningkatkan kualitas kehamilan dan kelahiran. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui prevalensi anemia pada ibu hamil peserta Program 1000 HPK serta menganalisis faktor-faktor yang berpengaruh terhadap anemia pada ibu hamil di Agats, Asmat, Papua. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif observasional, menggunakan data sekunder dari laporan evaluasi Program 1000 HPK Puskesmas Agats Oktober 2017, yang diambil pada periode pelaksanaan Kuliah Kerja Nyata - Peduli Bencana (KKN-PB) Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM), 17 Maret sampai 30 April 2018. Sebanyak 97 ibu hamil dari 230 peserta Program 1000 HPK dilibatkan dalam penelitian ini. Data yang diambil meliputi umur kehamilan, kadar hemoglobin (Hb), lingkar lengan atas (LLA), berat badan, dan pemberian suplemen zat besi. Kadar Hb < 11 g/dL pada trimester I atau < 10.5 g/dL pada trimester II dan III digolongkan sebagai anemia. Dilakukan pula analisis kemungkinan faktor risiko anemia berdasarkan hasil observasi di Agats dengan tinjauan pustaka. Dari total 97 ibu hamil peserta Program 1000 HPK, sebanyak 45.4% orang menderita anemia, meskipun 43.4% di antaranya telah mendapatkan suplementasi zat besi. Sebanyak 24.7% ibu hamil memiliki LLA < 23 cm. Beberapa kemungkinan faktor risiko anemia pada ibu hamil di Agats meliputi letak geografis Asmat, rendahnya tingkat pendidikan masyarakat, minimnya tenaga kesehatan serta fasilitas pelayanan kesehatan, kurangnya perhatian masyarakat terhadap kesehatan, keadaan sosioekonomi rendah, dan status gizi ibu hamil. Prevalensi anemia pada ibu hamil peserta Program 1000 HPK di Agats, Asmat, Papua pada Oktober 2017 lebih tinggi dari prevalensi nasional. Penelitian lebih lanjut dibutuhkan untuk mengetahui kaitan pasti antara kejadian anemia pada ibu hamil di Agats dengan faktor-faktor risiko tersebut.

KATA KUNCI anemia; kehamilan; 1000 hari pertama kehidupan; Asmat; Papua

 

ABSTRACT In 2013, it was found that 37% pregnant women in Indonesia suffered from anemia. However, in Agats, Asmat, Papua, this phenomenon has not gained enough attention. In order to improve the quality of birth and pregnancy, Pusat Kesehatan Masyarakat (Puskesmas) Agats is currently implementing the First 1000 Days of Life (1000 HPK) Program since 2016. This study aimed to discover the prevalence of anemia in pregnancy of the 1000 HPK participants in Agats and to understand the possible contributing risk factors. This study was descriptive observational study using secondary data from the evaluation report of 1000 HPK Program in Puskesmas Agats during October 2017. From 230 participants of 1000 HPK Program, 97 of them who were pregnant, were taken as the sample. The data (gestational age, hemoglobin level, upper arm circumference, body weight, and history of iron supplementation) were obtained during the implementation of Kuliah Kerja Nyata - Peduli Bencana (KKN-PB) Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM), from March 17th to April 30th, 2018. Hemoglobin level in the first trimester < 11 g/dL or in the second and third trimester < 10.5 g/dL were classified as anemia. The observed risk factors were then analyzed using literature review. From 97 participants of 1000 HPK Program, 45.4% suffered from anemia, even though 43.4% of them had received iron supplementation. Moreover, 24.7% of the pregnant women had mid-upper arm circumference < 23 cm. Several observed influencing risk factors included the geographic profile of Asmat, low educational status, lacking of health personnels, facilities and the general awareness of the citizens regarding maternal health, low socio-economical status, and low maternal nutritional status. The prevalence of anemia in the pregnant participants of 1000 HPK Program in Agats, Asmat, Papua, during October 2017 was higher than the national prevalence. Further study needs to be conducted in order to find the correlation between the prevalence of anemia in the pregnant participants of 1000 HPK Program in Agats and the suspected risk factors.

KEYWORDS anemia; pregnancy; first 1000 days of life; Asmat; Papua


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jcoemph.39261

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