A review of Internet-based approaches for health promotion programs related to the COVID-19 pandemic and wellness education


Carissa Wityadarda(1), Gusti Ayu Sinta Deasy Andani(2), Rina Rostarina(3*)

(1) Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine Padjadjaran University, Bandung Indonesia
(2) Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine Padjadjaran University, Bandung Indonesia Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine Jenderal Achmad Yani University, Cimahi, Indonesia
(3) Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine Padjadjaran University, Bandung Indonesia Central of Health training, Public Health office West Java, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


COVID-19 pandemic continues to have significant impacts in various sectors of society worldwide, including Indonesia. One major impact of COVID-19 occurs in the health information sector especially with social distancing regulations that inhibit people to access health care providers. This has led to several other problems such as behavior alteration involving unhealthy lifestyles and misleading information. Due to the limitations of social interaction, health care providers have proposed various methods to provide health promotions related to COVID-19 and wellness education that are accessible by the whole society with or without Internet access. This study aimed to review the current strategies of health information systems to increase knowledge about COVID-19 and overall wellness by the implementation of Internet-based programs. This review is based on a secondary study conducted with online search engines. Some previous studies showed that online training has improved knowledge significantly. Other research also described how the success of a community education program depends on adequate motivation and access to proper information. Three main factors that cause the failure of community education are lack of self-efficacy, lack of information, and distraction without proper supervision. Lack of information is due to the difficulty to gain Internet access in some areas and for some populations. In conclusion, Internet-based approaches can be implemented for health promotion programs related to COVID-19 and wellness due to the massive growth of Internet use in Indonesia.


COVID-19; health promotion; wellness; internet; self-efficacy; self-management

Full Text:



  1. Abrams EM, Szefler SJ. COVID-19 and the impact of social determinants of health. Lancet Respir Med. 2020;8(7):659-661.
  2. World Health Organization. WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard. 2020. [Internet]. Available at: https://covid19.who.int/region/wpro/country/cn%0Ahttps://covid19.who.int/?gclid=CjwKCAjwztL2BRATEiwAvnALcpJvfJoB2ZO9AW4cscOjOPpuNNisqVVlTkpdslGJOuXSFkrhbLCafxoCjB0QAvD_BwE
  3. Puskakom Universitas Indonesia. Profil Pengguna Internet Indonesia [internet]. Jakarta: Universitas Indonesia; 2017 [updated 2017; cited 2020 May]. Available from: http://puskakom.ui.ac.id/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/Survey-APJII-2014-v2.pdf
  4. Black S, Allen JD. Part 7: Rewards, motivation, and performance. Ref Libr. 2018;59(4):205–18.
  5. Sartorius N. Meanings of health and its promotion. Croat Med. 2006;89:539–48.
  6. Farhud DD. Impact of lifestyle on health and physical capability: a data mining approach. ACM Int Conf Proceeding Ser. 2018;2018-March(11):119–24.
  7. Kazemi M, McBreairty LE, Zello GA, Pierson RA, Gordon JJ, Serrao SB. A pulse-based diet and the therapeutic lifestyle changes diet in combination with health counseling and exercise improve health-related quality of life in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. J Psychosom Obstet Gynecol. 2020;41(2):144–53.
  8. Ebert DD, Heber E, Berking M, Riper H, Cuijpers P, Funk B. Self-guided internet-based and mobile-based stress management for employees: results of a randomised controlled trial. Occup Environ Med. 2016;73(5):315–23.
  9. Guerrero MD, Vanderloo LM, Rhodes RE, Faulkner G, Moore SA, Tremblay MS. Canadian children’s and youth’s adherence to the 24-h movement guidelines during the COVID-19 pandemic: a decision tree analysis. J Sport Heal Sci. 2020;9(4): 313-321.
  10. Daryanti S, Simanjuntak KU. Segmentation of mobile internet users in the Indonesian context: insight for mobile internet product development management. southeast Asian J Manag. 2016;10(1).
  11. Müller J. Internet usage in Indonesia - Statistics & Facts. Internet usage in Indonesia [Internet] - Statistics & Facts. 2019. [updated 14 Oct 2020; cited 2020 May] Available at: https://www.statista.com/topics/2431/internet-usage-in-indonesia/
  12. Oren O, Yang EH, Gluckman TJ, Michos ED, Blumenthal RS, Gersh BJ. The use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in COVID-19 and cardiovascular implications: understanding safety discrepancies to improve interpretation and design of clinical trials. Circ Arrhythmia Electrophysiol. 2020;13(6):586–90.
  13. Howard J, Huang A, Li Z, Tufekci Z, Zdimal V, Westhuizen H-M van der. Face mask against COVID-19: an evidence review. Br Med J. 2020:1–8.
  14. Ahmed W, Vidal-Alaball J, Downing J, Seguí FL. COVID-19 and the 5G conspiracy theory: a social network analysis of Twitter data. J Med Internet Res. 2020;22(5):1–9.
  15. Lin Y, Hu Z, Alias H, Wong LP. Knowledge, attitudes, impact, and anxiety regarding COVID-19 infection among the public in China. Front Public Heal. 2020;8:236.
  16. Schillinger D, Chittamuru D, Ramírez AS. From "Infodemics" to health promotion: a novel framework for the role of social media in public health. Am J Public Health. 2020;1–4.
  17. Vandormael A, Vandormael A, Adam M, Greuel M, Bärnighausen T, Bärnighausen T. A short, animated video to improve good COVID-19 hygiene practices: a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2020;21(1):21–3.
  18. Meinert E, Milne-Ives M, Surodina S, Lam C. Agile requirements engineering and software planning for a digital health platform to engage the effects of isolation caused by social distancing: case study. JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2020;6(2):e19297.
  19. McNamara JM, Walm RILS, Tearne DAJS, Ovassin TRMC. Online weight training. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(4):1164–8.
  20. Van Woerden HC, Ashton K, Garlick C, Hurley A, Cooper A, Willson A. Evaluation of a web-based tool to improve health behaviors in healthcare staff. Int Arch Med. 2014;7(1):1–9.
  21. Anderson-Bill ES, Winett RA, Wojcik JR. Social cognitive determinants of nutrition and physical activity among web-health users enrolling in an online intervention: the influence of social support, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and self-regulation. J Med Internet Res. 2011;13(1):1–16.
  22. Burzyńska J, Binkowska-Bury M, Januszewicz P. Television as a source of information on health and illness – review of benefits and problems. Prog Heal Sci. 2015;5(2):174–84.
  23. Berry TR, Spence JC, Plotnikoff RC, Bauman A, McCargar L, Witcher C, وآخ. A mixed-methods evaluation of televised health promotion advertisements targeted at older adults. Eval Program Plann. 2009;32(3):278–88.
  24. Freisling H, Haas K, Elmadfa I. Mass media nutrition information sources and associations with fruit and vegetable consumption among adolescents. Public Health Nutr. 2010;13(2):269–75.
  25. Syed MAM. Soap opera as a site for engaging with modernity amongst Malay women in Malaysia. Malaysian J Media Stud. 2015;13(2011):17–36.
  26. Zhu C, Xu X, Zhang W, Chen J, Evans R. How health communication via tik tok makes a difference: a content analysis of TikTok accounts run by Chinese provincial health committees. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(1):1–13.
  27. Paramita VS, Isnayati I, Ikrawan Y, Adialita T. Secercah hati: community empowerment program in health and economic affairs through the role of Posyandu and Posbindu. M J Pemberdaya Masy. 2019;3(2):151–63.
  28. Menteri Ketenagakerjaan Republik Indonesia. Surat Edaran Menteri Ketenagakerjaan RI Nomor M/2/HM.01/III/202. Panduan Tindak Lanjut Terkait Pencegahan Penyebaran Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID19) Di Lingkungan Kementrian Ketenagakerjaan. 2020.
  29. KEMENDIKBUD. Pusdiklat Memberlakukan Kebijakan Pegawai Bekerja Dari Rumah (Working From Home) – Pusdiklat Pegawai Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan. 2020.
  30. Anggara S, Afiyah S, Farida AS, Muslim J. Inovasi Kebilakan PUublik Tentang Pencegahan dan Penanggulangan Corona Virus Disease 19 (COVID-19) di Jawa Barat. 2020.
  31. Kemkominfo. PeduliLindungi. 2020. [Internet]. Available from: https://pedulilindungi.id/#tentang
  32. Asaari MHAH, Desa MN, Subramaniam L. Influence of salary, promotion, and recognition toward work motivation among government trade agency employees. Int J Bus Manag. 2019;14(4):48.
  33. Nuraya AS, Pratiwi D. The effect of work environment and salary on motivation and the impact on employee job satisfaction in Indonesia Tourism Development Corporation (Persero). J Ilmu Manaj Ekon. 2017;9(2):122.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jcoemph.57084

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 2554 | views : 1708


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Community Empowerment for Health

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.