Public acceptance of banana leaf-filtered cloth masks as an alternative for medical masks

Mohamad Saifudin Hakim(1*), Fitra Duhita(2), Mumtihana Muchlis(3), Rita Dian Pratiwi(4)

(1) Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(2) Department of Information and Health Service, Vocational College, Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(3) Department of Information and Health Service, Vocational College, Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(4) Department of Information and Health Service, Vocational College, Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


One of the most basic control measures to prevent transmission of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is that everyone should wear face masks wherever there are potential exposures such as public spaces and when there are suspected symptoms of COVID-19 infection. In addition to adherence to public safety protocols, community compliance in wearing face masks is mainly influenced by the comfort when the masks are worn. Several mask developments have been made to improve the comfort and function of the masks, including a modified cloth mask with a banana leaf filter. This study aimed to assess the public acceptance of this modified mask that we previously developed. We conducted a survey using an adaptation of the instrument called, the Usefulness, Satisfaction and Ease of Use (USE) questionnaire. The respondents consisted of 99 people from the Family Welfare Program and Islamic study group members in Tlogoadi, Sleman. The data analysis was conducted descriptively. The majority of the respondents agreed that the banana leaf-filtered cloth masks were useful, easy to use, and satisfying to be worn. The highest indicators were ease of use (83%) and satisfaction (83%). However, only a small percentage (30%) of respondents were interested in making their own homemade masks.


banana leaf-filtered cloth mask; COVID-19; non-medical masks; public acceptance

Full Text:



1. World Health Organization. Advice on the use of masks in the context of COVID-19. Available from: (accessed on October 10, 2021)

2. Kementerian Kesehatan. Hindari penggunaan masker palsu, kenali ciri masker layak pakai. Kemenkes. 2021. Available from: (accessed on October 10, 2021)

3. World Health Organization. Tracking SARS-CoV-2 variants. Available from: (accessed on October 10, 2021)

4. Brooks JT, Beezhold DH, Noti JD, Coyle JP, Derk RC, Blachere FM, et al. Maximizing fit for cloth and medical procedure masks to improve performance and reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission and exposure. MMWR Surveillance Summaries. 2021; 70:254-257.

5. Pratiwi AD. Gambaran penggunaan masker di masa pandemi COVID-19 pada masyarakat di kabupaten Muna. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Problematika Sosial Pandemi COVID-19. 2020;52-57. (accessed on October 10, 2021)

6. Vahedian-Azimi A, Makvandi S, Karimi L. Cultural reasons: the most important factors in resisting wearing a mask. Hosp Pract Res. 2020;5(3):120-121.

7. Sangkham S. Face mask and medical waste disposal during the novel COVID-19 pandemic in Asia. Case Stud Chem Environ Eng. 2020;2:100052.

8. Hakim MS, Muchlis M, Duhita F, Pratiwi DP. The effectivity of banana leaf-filtered cloth face masks as an alternative protection during the pandemic. Int J Public Health Sci. 2022;11(1):342-351.

9. Chua MH, Cheng W, Goh SS, Kong J, Li B, Lim JYC, et al. Face masks in the new COVID-19 normal: materials, testing, and perspectives. AAAS Research. 2020;2020:1-40.

10. O’Dowd K, Nair KM, Forouzandeh P, Mathew S, Grant J, Moran R, et al. Face masks and respirators in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic: a review of current materials, advances and future perspectives. Materials (Basel). 2020;13(15):3363.

11. Goh DYT, Mun MW, Lee WLJ, Teoh OH, Rajgor DD. A randomised clinical trial to evaluate the safety, fit, comfort of a novel N95 mask in children. Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):18952.

12. Gao M, Kortum PT, Oswald FL. Psychometric evaluation of the USE (Usefulness, Satisfaction, and Ease of use) questionnaire for reliability and validity. Proc Hum Factors Ergon Soc Annu Meet. 2018;62:1414-1418.

13. Chowdhury MA, Shuvho MBA, Shahid MA, Haque AKMM, Kashem MA, Lam SS, et al. Prospect of biobased antiviral face mask to limit the coronavirus outbreak. Environ Res. 2021;192:110294.

14. Klemes J, Fan Y, Jiang P. The energy and environmental footprints of COVID-19 fighting measures – PPE, disinfection, supply chains. Energy. 2020;211:118701.

15. Tim BPS COVID-19 Statistical Task Force. Hasil survei perilaku masyarakat di masa pandemi COVID-19. Available from: (accessed on October 10, 2021)

16. Betsch C, Korn L, Sprengholz P, Felgendreff L, Eitze S, Schmid P, et al. Social and behavioral consequences of mask policies during the COVID-19 pandemic. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020;117(36):21851-21853.

17. Brooks JT, Butler JC. Effectiveness of mask wearing to control community spread of SARS-CoV-2. JAMA. 2021;325(10):998-999.

18. Payne DC, Smith-Jeffcoat SE, Nowak G, Chukwuma U, Geibe JR, Hawkins RJ, et al. SARS-CoV-2 infections and serologic responses from a sample of U.S. Navy Service Members - USS Theodore Roosevelt, April 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2020;69(23):714-721.

19. Adjodah D, Dinakar K, Chinazzi M, Fraiberger SP, Pentland A, Bates S, et al. Association between COVID-19 outcomes and mask mandates, adherence, and attitudes. PLoS One. 2021;16(6):e0252315.

20. Davies A, Thompson KA, Giri K, Kafatos G, Walker J, Bennett A. Testing the efficacy of homemade masks: would they protect in an influenza pandemic? Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2013;7(4):413-418.

21. Ollila HM, Partinen M, Koskela J, Savolainen R, Rotkirch A, Laine LT. Face masks to prevent transmission of respiratory diseases: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. medRxiv. 2020;

22. Gbadegbe RS, Buami EK, Kumah C, Vigbedor D. Use of the appropriate fabric for cloth face mask: a necessity in the fight against COVID-19. J Text Sci Technol. 2021;7:172-187.

23. Eberhart M, Orthaber S, Kerbl R. The impact of face masks on children: a mini review. Acta Paediatr. 2021;110:1778-1783.

24. Esposito S, Principi N. To mask or not to mask children to overcome COVID-19. Eur J Pediatr. 2020;27(179):1267-1270.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 2230 | views : 1636


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Community Empowerment for Health

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.