Effect of Peat Water Mix with Borehole Water on Mortality of African Catfish


Ardianor Ardianor(1*), Tutwuri Handayani(2), Noor Syarifuddin Yusuf(3), Rosana Elvince(4)

(1) Aquatic Resources Management, Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Palangka Raya, Palangka Raya, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia
(2) Aquatic Resources Management, Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Palangka Raya, Palangka Raya, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia
(3) Aquaculture, Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Palangka Raya, Palangka Raya, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia
(4) Aquatic Resources Management, Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Palangka Raya, Palangka Raya, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


Generally, cultured fish are suitable in media with a pH of around 7, like mountainous river and borehole water.  However, peat water is known with low pH.  It is not suitable for fish culture, especially for fingerlings.  This study was conducted to examine the survival of African catfish fingerling (Clarias gariepinus) in the mixture of peat and borehole water with different pHs. Survival test of African catfish as subject applied bioassay method, LC50-96 hours.  Peat water as the agent was arranged for 11 concentration levels of 0% - 100% with no replication and placed in plastic basins with 20 liters each. Catfish fingerlings were used for subject fish (size 10-15 cm) and 10 individuals in each basin. Water quality, mortality, and behavior of fish were observed. Results showed that the survival ability of African catfish on peat water, the LC50-96 hours was 63.8%, with 95% CI between 53.3% and 76.4% in concentration. Behavioral response of fish fingerling exposed to peat water ≥ 40% in the beginning 2 hours was frequently swimming up to surface.  Lethal responses fingerlings were frequently taking up oxygen to the water surface, horizontally swimming, and moving vertically before death.  After death, the fish ran out of mucus, and the skin looked peeling and bruising.


African catfish fingerlings; bioassay; peat water of low pH; survival

Full Text:



APHA, 1985. Standard Methods For The Examination of Water and Wastewater. American Public Health Association. APHA Washington DC, USA.

Ardianor, A., T. Handayani & N.S. Yusuf. 2012. Kajian penurunan keasaman air gambut menggunakan radiasi matahari dengan indikator kelangsungan hidup dan pertumbuhan plankton dan ikan introduksi. Laporan Penelitian Unggulan Perguruan Tinggi. Lembaga Penelitian Universitas Palangka Raya. 52 p.

Baird, R., and L. Bridgewater. 2017. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 23rd edition. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, and Water Environment Federation. 1.504 pages.

Boyd, C.E. 1990. Water quality in ponds for aquaculture. Auburn, AL: Birmingham Publishing.

Dewanggani, A.P., L.A. Sari, P.D.W. Sari, D.D. Nindarwi & S. Arsad. 2021. The effect of feed management technology (life and pellet feed) on the maintenance of Mutiara catfish (Clarias sp.) in freshwater cultivation. IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 718 012017. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/718/1/012017

Duarte, R. M., M. S. Ferreira, C.M. Wood & A.L. Val. 2013. Effect of low pH exposure on Na+ regulation in two cichlid fish species of the Amazon. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. 166 (3): 441-448. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2013.07.022

Gracia López, V., I. García Sisquella, and F. Castelló-Orvay. 2002. Effect of daily food intake rate and different artificial feeds on the growth and feeding parameters of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Rev. Invest. Mar. 23 (2):149-153.

Hubert, J.J. 1980. Bioassay. Second Edition. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. The USA. 186 p.

Husson, S.J., S.H. Limin, A. Adul, N.S. Boyd, J.J. Brousseau, S. Collier, S.M. Cheyne, L.J. D’Arcy, R.A. Dow, N.W. Dowds, M.L. Dragiewicz, D.A. Ehlers Smith, I. Iwan, H. Hendri, P.R. Houlihan, K.A. Jeffers, B.J.M. Jarrett, I.P. Kulu, H.C. Morrogh-Bernard, S.E. Page, E.D. Parlett, A. Purwanto, B.R. Capilla, S. Salahuddin, S. Santiano, S.J.J. Schreven, M.J. Struebig, S.A. Thornton, C. Tremlett, Z. Yeen & M.E. Harrison. 2018. Biodiversity of the Sebangau tropical peat swamp forest, Indonesian Borneo, Mires, and Peat. 22 (5):1-50. https://doi.org/10.19189/MaP.2018.OMB.352

Ishikawa, T. T. Trisliana, Y. Yurenfri, A. Ardianor & S. Gumiri. 2006. Dissolved organic carbon concentration of a natural water body and its relationship to watercolour in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Limnology. 7: 143-146. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10201-006-0174-0

Ishikawa, T. Y. Yurenfri, T. Trisliana & T. Iwakuma. 2005. Bioavailability and photodegradation of dissolved organic carbon in peat swamp area. Annual Report for April 2004-March 2005 of The Environmental Conservation and Land Use Management of Wetland Ecosystem in Southeast Asia, Hokkaido University, Japan. 210-215 p.

Iswanto, B. 2013. Menelusuri identitas ikan lele dumbo. Media akuakultur. 8 (2): 85-95. http://dx.doi.org/10.15578/ma.8.2.2013.85-95

Khairuman, A. 2012. Pembenihan Lele di Kolam Terpal. Agromedia Pustaka. 112 p.

Mustapha, M.K and Z.O. Mohammed. 2018. Effect of simulated acid rain on the survival, mortality, behaviour, and morphology of African mud catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822). Acta Scientiarum Animal Sciences. 40: 1-4. https://doi.org/10.4025/actascianimsci.v40i1.36900

Najiyati, 2003. Memelihara Ikan Lele Dumbo di Kolam Taman. Penebar Swadaya. Jakarta.

Ogunji, J.O and J. Awoke. 2017. Effect of environmental regulated water temperature variations on survival, growth performance, and haematology of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus. Our Nature. 15 (1-2): 26-33. https://doi.org/10.3126/on.v15i1-2.18791

Oyo, V.O & A. Ekanem. 2011. Effect of feeding frequency on the growth, food utilization, and survival of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) using locally formulated diet. Afr. J. Environ. Pollut. Health. 9 (2): 11-17.

Primaningtyas, A.W., S. Hastuti & S. Subandiyono. 2015. Performa produksi ikan lele (Clarias gariepinus) yang dipelihara dalam sistem budidaya berbeda. Journal of Aquaculture Management and Technology. 4 (4): 51-60.

Prokešová, M., B. Drozd,J. Kouřil,V. Stejskal, & J. Matoušek. 2015. Effect of water temperature on early life history of African sharp-tooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822). Journal of Applied Ichtiology. 31 (2): 18-29. https://doi.org/10.1111/jai.12849

Pusparani, C. 2020. Konsentrasi Letal Air Gambut yang Ber-pH Rendah Terhadap Benih Ikan Gurame (Osphrenemus gouramy). Skripsi. Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Palangka Raya. 44 p.

R Core Team, 2021. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. URL https://www.R-project.org/.

Saanin, H. 1984. Taksonomi dan Kunci Identifikasi Ikan 1. Penerbit Bina Cipta, Jakarta

Sprague, J.B. 1973. The ABCs of Pollutant Bioassay Using Fish. In J. Cairn and K.L. Dickson Eds. Biological Method for Assessment of Water Quality. ASTM STP STP. American Soc. Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, USA.

Steinberg, C.E.W. 2003. Ecology of humic substances in freshwaters. Determinants from geochemistry to ecological niches. Springer, Berlin.

Thornton, S.A., Dudin, S.E. Page, C. Upton & M.E. Harrison. 2018. Peatland fish of Sebangau, Borneo: diversity, monitoring, and conservation. Mires and Peat. 22 (04): 1-25. http://dx.doi.org/10.19189/MaP.2017.OMB.313

Wetzel, R.G., P.G. Hatcher & T.S. Bianchi. 1995. Natural photolysis by ultraviolet irradiance of recalcitrant dissolved organic matter to simple substrate to rapid bacterial metabolism. Limno. Oceanogr. 40 (8):1369-1380. https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.1995.40.8.1369

Žibiene, G & A. Žibas. 2017. Water quality and waste contamination study in catfish rearing recirculating aquaculture system. Proceedings of the 8 th International Scientific Conference Rural Development 2017. pp. 850-856. Article DOI: http://doi.org/10.15544/RD.2017.015

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jfs.73848

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 839 | views : 656


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Perikanan Universitas Gadjah Mada

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Perikanan Universitas Gadjah Mada (print ISSN 0853-6384; online ISSN 2502-5066) is published by Department of Fisheries, Universitas Gadjah Mada in collaboration with Semnaskan UGM (Seminar Nasional Tahunan Hasil Perikanan dan Kelautan) and ISMFR (International Symposium on Marine and Fisheries Research).


View My Stats