Cover Image

Strength assessment of rice hills from different planting distance by loading simulation

https://doi.org/10.22146/ipas.31895

Edi Santosa(1*), Herdhata Agusta(2), Dwi Guntoro(3), Sofyan Zaman(4)

(1) Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, IPB University, Jl Meranti Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680
(2) Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, IPB University, Jl Meranti Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680
(3) Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, IPB University, Jl Meranti Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680
(4) Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, IPB University, Jl Meranti Kampus IPB Darmaga, Bogor 16680
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Plant spacing arrangement might benefit hill strength from the impact of strong wind velocity during extreme weather situations. Here, a loading test to evaluate rice hill strength was performed on Ciherang variety grown in square and double row spacing 2:1. The research was conducted at Cilubang village, Dramaga, Bogor, West Java, Indonesia from March to May 2017. Weight holding capacity was evaluated in 85 days after transplanting on four levels of hill height, i.e., 80 cm, 60 cm, 40 cm, and 20 cm above soil level with three-time replication. The results showed that double-spaced hills had 66.0 % ± 3.1 % stronger than those of square spacing at all height measurement. To lodge a hill into 20 cm to 40 cm from soil level, it required 346.7 g to 741.7 g in square spacing, and 555.2 g to 1149.2 g in double row spacing. Stronger hills in double row spacing seemed to correlate with a higher number of tiller and hills architecture; it requires further study in the role of both factors on the hill strength improvement. The present study recommends applying double row spacing to improve rice hill strength especially at a time with a high chance of lodging by strong wind incident.


Keywords


double row spacing; extreme weather; lodging simulation; strong wind; weight holding capacity

Full Text:

PDF


References

Ahmad, A., M. Afzal, A. U. H. Ahmad, and M. Tahir. 2013. Effect of foliar application of silicone on yield and quality of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Cercetari Agronomice in Moldova, 46: 23-28.

Amanah, A., S. N. H. Utami, and M. Nurudin. 2017. Effect of planting distance on nitrogen uptake and productivity of paddy var. Rojolele irradiated with gamma rays in Inceptisol. Ilmu Pertanian (Agricultural Science), 2: 070-078.

Badshah, M. A., N. Tu, Y. Zou, M. Ibrahim, and K. Wang. 2014. Yield and tillering response of super hybrid rice Liangyoupeijiu to tillage and establishment methods. The Crop Journal, 2: 79-86.

Baker, C. J., M. Sterling, and P. Berry. 2014. A generalized model of crop lodging. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 363: 1-12.

Barnard, D. M. and W. L. Bauerle. 2016. Seasonal variation in canopy aerodynamics and the sensitivity of transpiration estimates to wind velocity in broadleaved deciduous species. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 17: 3029-3043.

Cao, J., Y. Tamura, and A. Yoshida. 2012. Wind tunnel study on aerodynamic characteristics of shrubby specimens of three tree species. Urban Forest & Urban Greening, 11: 465-476.

Carvalho, D., A. Rocha, M. Gómez-Gesteira, and C. S. Santos. 2017. Potential impacts of climate change on European wind energy resource under the CMIP5 future climate projections. Renewable Energy, 101: 29-40.

Cataldo, J., V. Durañona, R. Pienika, P. Pais, and A. Gravina. 2013. Wind damage on citrus fruit study: Wind tunnel tests. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 116: 1-6.

Dulbari, E. Santosa, Y. Koesmaryono, and E. Sulistyono. 2018. Pendugaan kehilangan hasil pada tanaman padi rebah akibat terpaan angin kencang dan curah hujan tinggi. Jurnal Agronomi Indonesia, 46: 17-23.

Erythrina and Z. Zaini. 2014. Budi daya padi sawah sistem tanam jajar legowo: Tinjauan metodologi untuk mendapatkan hasil optimal. Jurnal Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian, 33: 79-86.

Gan, C. J. and S. M. Salim. 2014. Numerical analysis of fluid-structure interaction between wind flow and trees. Proceeding of the World Congress on Engineering, 2: 1218-1223

Gardiner, B., P. Berry, and B. Moulia. 2016. Review: Wind impacts on plant growth, mechanics and damage. Plant Science, 245: 94-118.

Hayashi, K., M. Tatuno, H. Nagabayashi, H. Hasimoto, and T. Tada. 2011. Fluid forces acting on a tree. Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers Ser. A2 (Applied Mechanics (AM)), 67: 569-580.

Hong, J., J. Kim, A. Miyata, and Y. Harazono. 2002. Basic characteristics of canopy turbulence in a homogeneous rice paddy. Journal of Geophysical Research, 107: 801-820.

Ikhwani. 2015. Effects of interaction between new rice varieties and plant spacing to productivity of rice. Informatika Pertanian, 24: 245-256.

International Rice Research Institute. 2019. Sustainable rice landscapes initiative to reduce environmental footprint of rice production. https://www.irri.org/news-and-events/news/.

Ishimaru, T., H. Hirabayashi, T. Kuwagata, T. Ogawa, and M. Kondo. 2012. The early-morning flowering trait of rice reduces spikelet sterility under windy and elevated temperature conditions at anthesis. Plant Production Science, 15: 19-22.

James, K. and B. Kane. 2008. Precision digital instruments to measure dynamic wind loads on trees during storms. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 148: 1005-1061.

Kane, B. and P. Clouston. 2008. Tree pulling tests of large shade trees in the genus Acer. Arboriculture & Urban Forest, 34: 101-109.

Li, X., X. Wang, H. Wei, X. Zhu, Y. Peng, M. Li , T. Li, and H. Huang. 2017. A technique system for the measurement, reconstruction and character extraction of rice plant architecture. PLoS ONE, 12: 1-19.

Magfiroh, N., I.M. Lapanjang, and U. Made. 2017. Pengaruh jarak tanam terhadap pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman padi (Oryza sativa L.) pada pola jarak tanam yang berbeda dalam sistem tabela. Agrotekbis, 5: 212-221.

Mahmudiyah, E. and R. Soedradjad. 2018. Pengaruh pupuk organik dan teknik budidaya terhadap produksi padi dan ikan pada sistem mina padi. Agritrop, 16: 17-37.

Martinez-Vazquez, P. 2016. Crop lodging induced by wind and rain. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 229: 265-275.

Mochida, A., Y. Tabata, T. Iwata, and H. Yoshino. 2008. Examining tree canopy models for CFD prediction of wind environment at pedestrian level. Jornal of Wind Engineering & Industrial Aerodynamics, 96: 1667-1677.

Muthu, S. S. and Y. Li. 2014. Assessment of functional aspects of shopping bags, p. 55-76. In: Muthu, S. S. and Y. Li. Assessment of environmental impact by grocery shopping bags. Singapore: EcoProduction, Springer.

Niu, L. Y., S. W. Feng, Z. G. Ru, G. Li, Z. P. Zhang, and Z. W. Wang. 2012. Rapid determination of single-stalk and population lodging resistance strengths and an assessment of the stem lodging wind speeds for winter wheat. Field Crops Research, 139: 1-8.

Niu, L. Y., S. W. Feng, W. Ding, and G. Li. 2016. Influence of speed and rainfall on large-scale wheat lodging from 2007 to 2014 in China. PLoS ONE, 11: e0157677.

Restrepo, H. and G. Garcés. 2013. Evaluation of low light intensity at three phenological stages in the agronomic and physiological responses of two rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars. Agronomia Colombiana, 31: 195-200.

Reuben, P., F. C. Kahimba, Z. Katambara, H. F. Mahoo, W. Mbungu, F. Mhenga, A. Nyarubamba, and M. Maugo. 2016. Optimizing plant spacing under the systems of rice intensification (SRI). Agricultural Sciences., 7: 270-278.

Rianto, D. F., D. Guntoro, and E. Santosa. 2019. Weed growth and lowland rice production as affected by planting patterns and rice varieties. Journal of Tropical Crop Science, 6: 67-75.

Ruminta, A. Wahyudin, and S. Sakinah.  2017. Respon pertumbuhan dan hasil tanaman padi terhadap jarak tanam pada lahan tadah hujan dengan menggunakan pengairan intermittent. Agrin, 21: 46-58.

Santosa, E., Dulbari, H. Agusta, D. Guntoro, and S. Zaman. 2016. Fenomena tanaman rebah dan implikasinya pada perbaikan varietas padi adaptif cuaca ekstrim di Indonesia. Prosiding Seminar Nasional PERIPI ’Strategi Pemuliaan dalam Mengantisipasi Perubahan Iklim Global. 45-53

Selino, A. and M.D. Jones. 2013. Large and small eddies matter: Animating trees in wind using coarse fluid simulation and synthetic turbulence. Computer Graphics Forum, 32: 75-84.

Soares, P.M.M., D.C.A. Lima, R.M. Cardoso, M.L. Nascimento, and A. Semedo. 2017. Western Iberian offshore wind resources: More or less in a global warming climate?. Applied Energy, 203: 72-90.

Sridevi, V. and V. Chellamuthu. 2015. Impact of weather on rice – A review. International Journal of Applied Research, 1: 825-831.

Tadrist, L., K. Julio, M. Saudreau, and E. de Langre. 2015. Leaf flutter by torsional galloping: Experiments and model. Journal of Fluids and Structures., 56: 1-10.

United Nations. 2017. UN agriculture agency takes step to help rice farmers bolster production. https://news.un.org/en/story/2017/03/.

Virot, E., A. Ponomarenko, E. Dehandschoewercker, D. Quere, and C. Clanet. 2016. Critical wind speed at which trees break. Physical Review E., 93: 023001.

Wang, F., F. Cheng, and G. Zhang. 2007. Difference in grain yield and quality among tillers in rice genotypes differing in tillering capacity. Rice Science, 14: 135-140.

Wu, W. and B.L. Ma. 2016. A new method for assessing plant lodging and the impact of management options on lodging in canola crop production. Scientific Reports, 6: 31890.

Zhu, Y. and C. Shao. 2017. The steady and vibrating status of tulip tree leaves in wind. Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Letters, 7: 30-34.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/ipas.31895

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 548 | views : 569

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.