Determination of cation exchange capacity and cation available analysis on hemic and sapric peat with different preparation and extraction methods

Mirna Anriani Siregar(1), Azwar Maas(2*), Makruf Nurudin(3)

(1) Department of Soil, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora no.1, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281
(2) Department of Soil, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora no.1, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281
(3) Department of Soil, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Flora no.1, Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281
(*) Corresponding Author


It is considered that the use of mineral soil analysis procedures on peat soils is unsuitable. Peat soil is vulnerable to disturbance which leads to the damage of peat inert structure, such as the sifting and drying process. The objective of this study is to obtain the proper methods of preparation and extraction to be used on peat soils that can reflect the conditions on field. The experiment was carried out in the laboratory of UGM Soil Science Department, by using the peat soil samples taken from Pulau Padang, Riau. The factorial randomized block design of 3 factors was applied. The first factor was the peat soil preparation, consisting of original soil (Hydrophilic), air-dried soil (Hydrophobic) and impacted air-dried soil. The second factor was the extraction method, consisting of shaking and leaching. The third factor was the level of peat maturity, consisting of hemic and sapric. The parameters observed included the available cation and peat CEC. The results showed no real effect of the treatment interactions toward each parameter observed. The preparation method for original soil on each level of peat maturity reflected more of the physical condition on the field more than the other methods. The level of peat maturity, sapric peat more significant effect on cations and CEC. After being converted to BD values in each level of peat maturity, the result of the leaching extraction method showed that the value of available cation and CEC that reflected more of the value on the field.


Peat Soil, hydrophobicity, shaking, leaching


Boelter, D. H. (1969). Physical properties of peats as related to degree of decomposition. Soil Science of America Proceedings, 33, pp. 606-609.

Balai Penelitian Tanah. (2009). Petunjuk teknis analisis kimia tanah, tanaman, air, dan pupuk. 2nd ed. Bogor: Balai Penelitian Tanah

Charman, D.J. (2009). Peat and peatlands. In: Likens, G.E. ed. Encyclopedia of Inland Waters. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 541-548.

Dewis, J. and Freitas, F. (1970). Physical and chemical methods of soil and water analysis. 10th ed. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization

Hikmatullah, Nugroho, K., and Sarwani, M. (2014). Characterizing the cultivated lowland peat soils in two physiography positions in Kalimantan, Indonesia. International Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Soil Science, 3(7), pp. 246-255

Indrawati, U.S.Y.V., Maas, A., Utami, S.N.H., and Hanudin, E. (2018). Characteristic of three biochar types with different pyrolysis time as ameliorant of peat soil. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research, 51(5), pp. 458-462.

Lampela, M., Jauhiainen, J., and Vasander, H. (2014). Surface peat structure and chemistry in a tropical peat swamp forest. Plant and Soil, 382(1-2), pp. 329-347.

Maas, A. 2010. Interpretasi gambut untuk budidaya. [online]. Available at:

Maftuáh., Fahmi, A., and Hayati, A. (2019). Changes in degraded peat land characteristic using FTIR-spectrocopy. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environment Science, 393, pp. 012091

Masganti. (2012). Sample preparation for peat material analysis. Prosiding Workshop on Sustainable Management Lowland for Rice Production, pp. 179-184.

McCormick, P.V., Harvey, J.W., and Crawford, E.S. (2011). Influence of changing water sources and mineral chemistry on the everglades ecosystem. Environmental   Science and Technology, 41(Sup1), pp. 28-63.

Perdana, L.R., Ratnasari, N.G., Ramadhan, M.L., Palamba, P., Nasruddin, and Nugroho, Y. S. (2018).      Hydrophilic and hydrophobic characteristics of dry peat. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 105, pp. 012083.

Rechcigl, J.E., Payne, G.G., and Sanchez, C.A. (2008). Comparison of various soil drying techniques on extractable nutrients. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 23(17-20), pp. 2347-2363.

Sudadi and Parwati. (2013). Pengaruh sifat ketidakbalikon tanah gambyang dihadapkan pada tingkat lengas dan lama inkubasi tertentu terhadap beberapa sifat kimianya. Sains Tanah, 4(1): 17-20.

Szajdak, L. and Szatylowicz, J. (2010). Impact of drainage on hydrophobicity of fen peat-moorsh soils. Mires and Peat, 6, 158-174.

Szajdak, L., Jezierski, A., Wegner, K.,  Meysner, T., and Szczepanski, M. (2020). Influence of drainage on peat organic matter: Implications for development, stability, and transformation. Molecules, 25(11), pp. 1-27.

Utami, S. N. H., Maas, A., Radjagukguk, B., and Purwanto, B. H. (2009a). Restorasi gambut dengan tiga jenis surfaktan, dan pengaruhnya terhadap efesiensi penyimpanan kation dan kapasitas memegang air. Agritech, 29(1), pp. 36-41.

Utami, S. N. H., Maas, A., Radjagukguk, B., and Purwanto, B. H. (2009b). Sifat fisik, kimia dan FTIR spektrofotometri gambut hidrofobik Kalimantan Tengah. Jurnal Tanah Tropika, 14(2), pp. 159-166.

Wang, M., Talbot, J., and Moore, T. R. (2018). Drainage and fertilization effects on nutrient availability in an ombrotrophic peatland. Science of the Total Environment, 621, pp. 1255-1263.

Winarna, Murtilaksono, K., Sabihan, S., Sutandi, A., and Sutarta, E. S. (2016). Hydrophobicity of tropical peat soil from an oil palm plantation in North Sumatra. Journal of Agronomy, 15(3), pp. 114-121.

Winarna, (2015).  Pengaruh kedalaman muka air tanah dan dosis terak baja terhadap hidrofobisitas tanah gambut, emisi karbon, dan produksi kelapa sawit. Institut Pertanian Bogor. (Dissertation).

Wu, Y., Zhang, N., Slater, G., Waddington, J. M., and Lannoy, C. D. (2020). Hydrophobicity of peat soils: Characterization of organic compound changes associated with heat-induced water repellency. Science of the Total Environment, 714, pp. 1-15.

Zabowski, D and Ugolini, F.C. (1990). Lysimeter and soil solutions: seasonal differences between methods. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 54(4), pp. 1130-1135.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 364


  • There are currently no refbacks.