Hubungan antara Jumlah Gigi dan Jumlah Oklusi Gigi Posterior dengan Kekuatan Genggaman Tangan pada Populasi Lansia di Yogyakarta

https://doi.org/10.22146/jkesvo.76423

Christia Aye Waindy Vega(1*), Bekti Nur’aini(2), Bambang Priyono(3), Elastria Widita(4), Lisdrianto Hanindriyo(5), Dewi Agustina(6), Fimma Naritasari(7), Rini Widyaningrum(8), Budi Rodestawati(9)

(1) Program Studi Higiene Gigi, FKG, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
(2) Program Studi Higiene Gigi, FKG, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
(3) Departemen Ilmu Kedokteran Gigi Pencegahan dan Ilmu Kedokteran Gigi Masyarakat, FKG, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(4) Program Studi Higiene Gigi, FKG, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
(5) Departemen Ilmu Kedokteran Gigi Pencegahan dan Ilmu Kedokteran Gigi Masyarakat, FKG, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(6) Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Mulut, FKG, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(7) Departemen Ilmu Penyakit Mulut, FKG, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(8) Departemen Radiologi Dental dan Maksilofasial, FKG, Universitas Gadjah Mada
(9) Program Studi Higiene Gigi, FKG, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Latar Belakang: Penurunan jumlah gigi dan oklusi gigi posterior dapat memengaruhi kemampuan mengunyah yang dapat berakibat pada berkurangnya asupan nutrisi. Hal ini dapat berdampak pada aktivitas otot, terutama masa dan kekuatan otot yang tercermin melalui kekuatan genggaman tangan.

Tujuan: Mengetahui hubungan antara jumlah gigi dan jumlah oklusi gigi posterior dengan kekuatan genggaman tangan populasi lansia di Yogyakarta.

Metode: Penelitian observasional dengan rancangan cross sectional dilakukan pada 75 lansia berusia ≥60 tahun. Pemeriksaan rongga mulut dilakukan oleh empat dokter gigi terlatih. Pemeriksaan Indeks Masa Tubuh dan pemeriksaan fisik dilakukan oleh dua higienis gigi terlatih. Gigi dihitung dengan menjumlahkan gigi asli, jumlah oklusi gigi dihitung menggunakan Index Eichner’s. Indeks Masa Tubuh (IMT) dihitung dengan satuan kg/m2. Kekuatan genggaman tangan diukur menggunakan hand dynamometer dalam satuan kilogram. Tingkat aktivitas fisik dievaluasi menggunakan kuesioner terstandar IPAQ. Uji chi-square dan regresi logistik digunakan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara jumlah gigi, jumlah oklusi gigi dan variabel covariat dengan kekuatan genggaman tangan.

Hasil: Uji Chi-square menunjukkan tidak terdapat perbedaan kekuatan genggaman tangan antara subjek yang memiliki jumlah gigi ≥20 dan <20 serta antara subjek dengan ≥2 dan <2 zona oklusi gigi posterior. Faktor risiko penurunan kekuatan genggaman tangan adalah aktivitas fisik (OR= 6,342, p=0,010).

Kesimpulan: Mempertahankan jumlah gigi ≥20 dan aktivitas fisik bermanfaat untuk mempertahankan kesehatan oral dan sistemik.


Keywords


Jumlah gigi; Oklusi gigi posterior; Kekuatan genggaman tangan; Lansia

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jkesvo.76423

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