Efektifitas Berbagai Metode Pembelajaran untuk Partisipasi Aktif Mahasiswa dan Stimulasi Proses Clinical Reasoning


Widyandana Widyandana(1*)

(1) Bagian Pendidikan Kedokteran, Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta
(*) Corresponding Author


Background: Skills lab program can be conducted by several methods, such as training by mannequin, role play with peers, simulated patients, and training in community. Medical students are expected to play an active role in training and always practice their clinical reasoning skills. However, there are still many students not ready for implementing some medical procedure in their clerkship. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the level of active participation and the clinical reasoning process of students obtained in four learning methods in skills lab.

Method: This study used a cross-sectional design with random survey questioner to 150 medical students in Medical Faculty of GMU (n=150). This survey were expected to explore the impression of students to each learning method, particularly in the active participation in practice and the clinical reasoning process. The results were analyzed using descriptive quantitative method by comparing total score of each learning method.

Results: The results showed that the learning method of medical skills in community is superior to 3 other methods, namely practice with mannequins, role play with peers, as well as simulated patients, both in promoting the active participation of students and stimulating the clinical reasoning skills (p<0.05).

Conclusion: Medical skills training in community is more effective in promoting the active participation of students in practice and stimulating the clinical reasoning skills. However, it should considerate with compatibility of topic, students’ readiness, and combined methods if needed.


Learning method, medical skills, mannequin, role play, peer, simulated patient, community, clinical reasoning, active participation

Full Text:



  1. General Medical Council. Tomorrow’s Doctors: recommendations on undergraduate medical education. London: General Medical Council; 2003.
  2. Nielsen DG, Moercke AM, Hansen GW, Eika B. Skills training in laboratory and clerkship: connections, similarities, and differences. Med Educ Online [Internet]. 2003 [cited 2009 Apr 10];8:12. Available from http://www.med-ed-online.org.
  3. Liddell MJ, Davidson SK, Taub H, Whitecross LE. Evaluation on procedural skills training in an undergraduate curriculum. Med Educ. 2002;36:1035-41.
  4. Smith B. From simulation to reality - breaking down the barriers. Clin Teach. 2006;3:112-7.
  5. Van Dalen J, Flippo-Berger JF. Skills lab: centre for training of skills. Maastricht: Maastricht University Press; 1999.
  6. Lynagh M, Burton R, Fisher RS. A systematic review of medical skills laboratory training: where to from here?. Med Educ. 2007; 41:879-87.
  7. Leddingham IM, Harden RM. Twelve tips for setting up clinical skills training facility. Med Teach. 1998; 20(6):503-7.
  8. Norman G. Research in clinical reasoning: past history and current trends. Med Educ. 2005; 39:418-27.
  9. Lane C, Hood A, Rollnick S. Teaching motivational interviewing: using role play as effective as using simulatd patients. Med Educ. 2008; 42:637-44.
  10. Remmen R, Scherpbier A, van der Vleuten C, Denekens J, Derese A, Hermann I, et al. Effectivenes of basic clinical skills training programes: a crosssectional comparison of four medical schools. Med Educ. 2001;35:121-8.
  11. Claramita M, Widyandana. The skills laboratory. Yogyakarta: Faculty of Medicine Gadjah Mada University Press; 2008.
  12. Prince KJAH, Boshuizen HPA, van der Vleuten C, Scherpbier AJJA. Students opinions about their preparation for clinical practice. Med Educ. 2005;39:704-12.
  13. Sarikaya O, Civaner M, Kalaca S. The anxieties of medical students related to clinical training. Int J Clin Pract. 2006; 60(11):1414-8.
  14. Kneebone RL, Scott W, Darzi A, Horrocks M. Simulation and clinical practice: strengthening the relationship. Med Educ. 2004;38:1095-102.
  15. Dornan T, Littlewood S, Margolis SA, Scherpbier A, Spencer J, Ypinazar V. A BEME systematic review: how can experience in clinical and community settings contribute to early medical education?. Med Teach. 2006;28(1):3-18.
  16. Custers EJFM, Regehr G, Mcculloch W, Peniston C, Reznick R. The effects of modelling on learning a simple surgical procedure: see one, do one or see many, do one?. Adv Health Sci Educ. 1999; 4:123-43.
  17. Stark P, Fortune F. Teaching clinical skills in developing countries: are clinical skills centres the answer? Educ Health. 2003;16(3):298-306.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jpki.25180

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1282 | views : 2619


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2017 Widyandana Widyandana

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Pendidikan Kedokteran Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Medical Education) indexed by: