Yoga Pamungkas Susani(1*), Gandes Retno Rahayu(2), Rossi Sanusi(3), Yayi Suryo Prabandari(4), Harsono Mardiwiyoto(5)

(1) Medical Education Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Mataram, Mataram - INDONESIA
(2) Department of Medical Education and Bioethics, Faculty of Medicine, Publich Health and Nursing Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta - INDONESIA
(3) Department of Medical Education and Bioethics, Faculty of Medicine, Publich Health and Nursing Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta - INDONESIA
(4) Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Publich Health and Nursing Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta - INDONESIA
(5) Department of Medical Education and Bioethics, Faculty of Medicine, Publich Health and Nursing Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta - INDONESIA
(*) Corresponding Author


Background: It is very important to develop professional identity among medical students, as it will affect how they work in the future. Factors affecting professional identity in medical education context need to be explored. This study aimed to develop a model of professional identity in medical students which examine the role of motivation, self-efficacy, personal reflection, social interaction, curriculum in action perceived by students and participation in determining professional identity.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among medical students in Mataram University. A total of 303 pre-clinical (year 1 to 4) and clinical students (year 5 to 6) filled out the questionnaires. Partial least square - structural equation model analysis was performed.

Results: The modification model had a good model fit (GoF 0.404). The average path coefficient was 0.303 (p<0.001) and the adjusted average R square was 0.321 (p<0.001). Forty percent of variance in professional identity could be explained by motivation (β=0.51, p<0.001, f2=0.281) and participation (β=0.32, p<0.001, f2=0.118).

Conclusions: Motivation and participation of medical students may influence the professional identity. Based on the model, within the medical education processes, academic motivation of students should be maintained and fostered and participation should be supported.


Professional identity, participation, self-efficacy, motivation, social interaction, curriculum in action, personal reflection

Full Text:



Wenger E. Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity. Cambridge University Press;1998.

Adams K, Hean S, Sturgis P, Clark JM. Investigating the factors influencing professional identity of first-year health and social care students. Learn. Heal. Soc. Care. 2006;5:55–68.

Bleakley A, Bligh J, Browne J. Medical education for the future, identity, power and location. Springer; 2011.

Nystrom S. The Dynamics of Professional Identity Formation: Graduates’ Transitions from Higher Education to Working Life. Vocat. Learn. 2009;2:1–18.

Wenger E. in Communities of practice and Social Learning Systems (ed. Blackmore, C.) Springer Verlag and the Open University; 2009.

Dornan T, Boshuiszen H, King N, Scherpbier A. Experience-based learning: a model linking the processes and outcomes of medical students’ workplace learning. Med. Educ. 2007;41:84–91.

Seddon K, Skinner NC, Postlethwaite KC. Creating a model to examine motivation for sustained engagement in online communities. Educ. Inf. Technol. 2007;13:17–34.

Katoma V, Hendrix D. Modeling Contextual Factors Affecting Online Participation in Communities of Practice (Cops) in Corporate Entities. Int. J. Bus. Soc. Sci. 2014;5:151-61.

Billet S. Relational Interdependence Between Social and Individual Agency in Work and Working Life. Mind, Cult. Act. 2006;13(1):53–69.

Deci E, Ryan RM. Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. Springer; 1985.

Bandura A. Self-efficacy : the exercise of control. W.H. Freeman; 1997.

Robbins SB, et al. Do psychosocial and study skill factors predict college outcomes? A meta-analysis. Psychol. Bull. 2004;130:261–88.

De Weerdt S, Bouwen R, Corthouts F, Martens H. Identity transformations as intercontextual process. Ind. High. Educ. 2006;2:317-25.

Baingana R, et al. Learning health professionalism at Makerere University: an exploratory study amongst undergraduate students. BMC Med. Educ. 2010;10:76.

Ngasa SN, et al. Prevalence and factors associated with depression among medical students in Cameroon: a cross-sectional study. BMC Psychiatry 2017;17:216.

Susani YP, Rahayu GR, Sanusi R, Prabandari YS, Mardiwiyoto H. Model Identitas Profesional Mahasiswa Kedokteran. Universitas Gadjah Mada; 2015.

Vallerand RJ, Pelletier LG, Blais MR, Briere NM, Senecal C, Vallieres EF. The academic motivation scale: a measure of intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation in education. Educ. Psychol. Meas. 1992;52:1003-17.

Solberg VS, Obrien K, Villareal P, Kennel R, Davis B. Self-efficacy and Hispanic college students: Validation of the College Self-Efficacy Instrument. Hisp. J. Behav. Sci. 1993;15:80–95.

Aukes L. Personal Reflection in Medical Education [dissertation]. University Medical Center Groningen; 2008.

Wong KK. Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) Techniques Using SmartPLS. Mark. Bull. 2013;24:1–32.

Susani YP, Rahayu GR, Sanusi R, Prabandari YS, Harsono. Medical Student ’ s Participation for Developing Professional Identity. MedEdPublish 2015;5:1–12.

Mak DB, Miflin B. Clinical audit in the final year of undergraduate medical education: Towards better care of future generations. Med. Teach. 2012;34:e251–7.

Lyon P, Letschka P, Ainsworth T, Haq I. An exploratory study of the potential learning benefits for medical students in collaborative drawing: creativity, reflection and ‘critical looking’. BMC Med. Educ. 2013;13:86.

Green MJ. Comics and Medicine: Peering Into the Process of Professional Identity Formation. Acad. Med. 2015;90:1.

Kaplan A, Flum H. Motivation and Identity: The Relations of Action and Development in Educational Contexts—An Introduction to the Special Issue. Educ. Psychol. 2009;44:73–7.

Steven K, Wenger E, Boshuizen H, Scherpbier A, Dornan T. How clerkship students learn from real patients in practice settings. Acad. Med. 2014;89:469–76.

Artino AR. Academic self-efficacy: from educational theory to instructional practice. Perspect. Med. Educ. 2012;1:76–85.

Yamada Y, Klugar M, Ivanova K, Oborna I. Psychological distress and academic self-perception among international medical students : the role of peer social support. BMC Med. Educ. 2014;14:1-8.

Vivekananda-Schmidt P, Crossley J, Murdoch-Eaton D. A model of professional self-identity formation in student doctors and dentists: a mixed method study. BMC Med. Educ. 2015;15:1-9.

Dornan T, Scherpbier A, Boshuizen H. Supporting medical students’ workplace learning: experience-based learning (ExBL). Clin. Teach. 2009;6:167-71.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 947 | views : 856


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Yoga Pamungkas Susani, Gandes Retno Rahayu, Rossi Sanusi, Yayi Suryo Prabandari, Harsono Mardiwiyoto

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Pendidikan Kedokteran Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Medical Education) indexed by:


JPKI Stats