Chaina Hanum(1), Ardi Findyartini(2*)

(1) Master Program in Medical Education Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia
(2) Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia
(*) Corresponding Author


Background: The increasing complexity of health problems consequently demands problem solving from various perspectives of health professionals. The interprofessional approach in solving health problems, by working together with patients, their families, and the communities is called Interprofessional Shared Decision-Making (IP-SDM). The capability of various health professionals in IP-SDM becomes one of the abilities to be achieved in Interprofessional Collaborative Practice (IPCP). IP-SDM learning should also be achieved through Interprofessional Education (IPE).

Method: This is a literature study aiming to elaborate IP-SDM and its correlation to IPCP and IPE.

Results: IP-SDM is a decision making process which involves collaboration between two or more health professionals and also patients aiming at idenfication of best choices while considering patients’ preferences. IP-SDM consists of two core processes: shared decision-making (SDM) between health professionals and patients and collaborative clinical reasoning (CCR) among health professionals.

Conclusion: Although SDM and CCR learning has been widely reported, including the potential emphasis in interprofessional education and interprofessional collaborative practice, IP-SDM learning is still limited. For this particular reason, further exploration is needed regarding the development of IP-SDM learning method in IPE, especially in Indonesia context.





interprofessional shared decision-making, shared decision-making, collaborathared decision-making, shared decision-making, collaborative clinical reasoning, interprofessional collaborative practice, interprofessional education

Full Text:



1. World Health Organization. Patient Safety Curriculum Guide: Multi-professional Edition. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2011.

2. Yusra RY, Findyartini A, Soemantri D. Healthcare professionals’ perceptions regarding interprofessional collaborative practice in Indonesia. J Interprofessional Educ Pract [Internet]. 2019;15:24–9. Available from:

3. Légaré F, Stacey D, Pouliot S, Gauvin F, Desroches S, Kryworuchko J, et al. Interprofessionalism and shared decision-making in primary care : a stepwise approach towards a new model. J Interprof Care. 2011;25:18–25.

4. Costanzo C, Doll J, Jensen GM. Shared Decision Making in Practice. In: Higgs J, Jensen GM, Loftus S, Christensen N, editors. Clinical reasoning in the health professions. 4th ed. Edinburgh: Elsevier; 2019. p. 181–90.

5. Barr H, Low H. Introducing Interprofessional Education. Centre for The Advancement of Interprofessional Education (CAIPE); 2013.

6. World Health Organization. Framework for Action on Interprofessional Education & Collaborative Practice [Internet]. Geneva; 2010. Available from:

7. Interprofessional Education Collaborative. Core Competencies for Interprofessional Collaborative Practice. Washington, DC; 2011.

8. Kaiser L, Bartz S, Neugebauer EAM, Pietsch B, Pieper D. Interprofessional collaboration and patient-reported outcomes in inpatient care : protocol for a systematic review. Syst Rev. 2018;7(126):1–6.

9. Bosch B, Mansell H. Interprofessional collaboration in health care : Lessons to be learned from competitive sports. Can Pharm J. 2015;148(4):176–9.

10. Interprofessional Education Collaborative. Core Competencies for Interprofessional Collaborative Practice : 2016 Update. Washington, DC; 2016.

11. Setiadi AP, Wibowo Y, Herawati F, Irawati S, Setiawan E, Presley B, et al. Factors contributing to interprofessional collaboration in Indonesian health centres : A focus group study. J Interprofessional Educ Pract [Internet]. 2017;8:69–74. Available from:

12. Soemantri D, Kambey DR, Yusra RY, Timor AB, Khairani CD, Setyorini D, et al. The supporting and inhibiting factors of interprofessional collaborative practice in a newly established teaching hospital. J Interprofessional Educ Pract [Internet]. 2019;15:149–56. Available from:

13. Thistlethwaite JE, Vlasses P. Interprofessional Education. In: Dent JA, Harden RM, Hunt D, editors. A practical guide for medical teachers. 5th ed. Edinburgh: Elsevier; 2017. p. 128–33.

14. Reeves S, Fletcher S, Barr H, Birch I, Boet S, Davies N, et al. A BEME systematic review of the effects of interprofessional education : BEME Guide No . 39. Med Teach. 2016;38(7):656–68.

15. Freeth D, Savin-Baden M, Thistlethwaite J. Interprofessional Education. In: Swanwick T, Forrest K, O’Brien BC, editors. Understanding Medical Education: Evidence, Theory, and Practice. 3rd ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Blackwell; 2019. p. 191–206.

16. Hean S, Green C, Anderson E, Morris D, John C, Pitt R & O’Halloran C. The Contribution of Theory to the Design, Delivery, and Evaluation of Interprofessional Curricula: BEME Guide No. 49. Med Teach. 2018. DOI

17. Zwarenstein M, Goldman J, Reeves S. Interprofessional Collaboration: Effects of Practice-based Interventions on Professional Practice and Healthcare Outcomes. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2009; 3. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000072.pub2.

18. Légaré F, Witteman HO. Shared Decision Making: Examining Key Elements and Barriers To Adoption Into Routine Clinical Practice. Health Aff. 2013;32(2):276–84.

19. Barr PJ, Thompson R, Walsh T, Grande SW, Ozanne EM, Elwyn G. The Psychometric Properties of CollaboRATE : A Fast and Frugal Patient-Reported Measure of the Shared Decision-Making Process. J Med Internet Res. 2014;16(1):e2.

20. Higgs J, Jones MA. Clinical decision making and multiple problem spaces. In: Higgs J, Jones MA, Loftus S, Christensen N, editors. Clinical reasoning in the health professions. 3rd ed. Butterworth Heinemann: Elsevier; 2008. p. 3–17.

21. Trowbridge RL, Rencic JJ, Durning SJ. Introduction/Preface. In: Trowbridge RL, Rencic JJ, Durning SJ, editors. Teaching Clinical Reasoning. Philadelphia PA: American College of Physicians; 2015. p. xvii–xxii.

22. Christensen N, Jensen GM. Developing Clinical Reasoning Capability. In: Higgs J, Jensen GM, Loftus S, Christensen N, editors. Clinical reasoning in the health professions. 4th ed. Edinburgh: Elsevier; 2019. p. 427–33.

23. Jensen G, Resnik L, Haddad A. Expertise and clinical reasoning. In: Higgs J, Jones MA, Loftus S, Christensen N, editors. Clinical reasoning in the health professions. 3rd ed. Butterworth Heinemann: Elsevier; 2008. p. 123–35.

24. Blondon KS, Maître F, Bochatay N, Cullati S, Hudelson P, Vu N V, et al. Interprofessional collaborative reasoning by residents and nurses in internal medicine : Evidence from a simulation study. Med Teach. 2017; 39(4):360-367.

25. Kiesewetter J, Fischer F, Fischer MR. Collaborative Clinical Reasoning — A Systematic Review of Empirical Studies. J Contin Educ Health Prof. 2017;37(2):123–8.

26. Patel VL, Cytryn KN, Shortliffe EH, Safran C. The Collaborative Health Care Team : The Role of Individual and Group Expertise. Teach Learn Med An Int J. 2000;12(3):117–32.

27. Stacey D, Légaré F, Pouliot S, Kryworuchko J, Dunn S. Shared decision making models to inform an interprofessional perspective on decision making : A theory analysis. Patient Educ Couns. 2010;80:164–72.

28. Légaré F, Stacey D, Brière N, Fraser K, Desroches S, Dumont S, et al. Healthcare providers’ intentions to engage in an interprofessional approach to shared decision-making in home care programs : A mixed methods study. J Interprof Care. 2013;182027(3):214–22.

29. Körner M, Ehrhardt H, Steger A. Designing an interprofessional training program for shared decision making. J Interprof Care. 2013;27:146–54.

30. Stacey D, Brière N, Robitaille H, Fraser K, Desroches S, Légaré F. A systematic process for creating and appraising clinical vignettes to illustrate interprofessional shared decision making. J Interprof Care. 2014;28(5):453–9.

31. Légaré F, Stacey D, Gagnon S, Dunn S, Pluye P, Frosch D, et al. Validating a conceptual model for an inter-professional approach to shared decision making: a mixed methods study. J Eval Clin Pract. 2011;17:554–64.

32. Dunn SI, Cragg B, Graham ID, Medves J, Dunn SI, Cragg B, et al. Roles , processes , and outcomes of interprofessional shared decision-making in a neonatal intensive care unit : A qualitative study. J Interprof Care [Internet]. 2018;00(00):1–11. Available from:

33. Trevena L, McCaffery K. Using Decision Aids To Involve Clients in Clinical Decision Making. In: Higgs J, Jensen GM, Loftus S, Christensen N, editors. Clinical reasoning in the health professions. 4th ed. Edinburgh: Elsevier; 2019. p. 191–200.

34. Kiesewetter J, Kollar I, Fernandez N, Lubarsky S, Kiessling C, Fischer MR, et al. Crossing boundaries in interprofessional education : A call for instructional integration of two script concepts. J Interprof Care. 2016;1–4.

35. Légaré F, Politi MC, Drolet R, Desroches S, Stacey D, Bekker H. Training health professionals in shared decision-making : An international environmental scan. Patient Educ Couns. 2012;88:159–69.

36. Packard K, Chehal H, Maio A, Doll J, Furze J, Huggett K, et al. Interprofessional Team Reasoning Framework as a Tool for Case Study Analysis with Health Professions Students : A Randomized Study. J Res Interprof Pract Educ. 2012;2(3):250–63.

37. Durand M-A, DiMilia PR, Song J, Yen RW, Barr PJ. Shared decision making embedded in the undergraduate medical curriculum : A scoping review. PLoS One. 2018;13(11):1–13.

38. Hendricks-Ferguson VL, Ruebling I, Sargeant DM, Kienstra K, Eliot KA, Howell TG, et al. Undergraduate students’ perspectives of healthcare professionals’ use of shared decision-making skills. J Interprof Care [Internet]. 2018;1–9. Available from:

39. Seif G, Coker-Bolt P, Kraft S, Gonsalves W, Simpson K, Johnson E. The development of clinical reasoning and interprofessional behaviors : service-learning at a student-run free clinic. J Interprof Care. 2014;28(6):559–64.

40. Student-Run Free Clinic [Internet]. Available from:

41. Johnson E, Seif G, Coker-bolt P, Kraft S. Measuring Clinical Reasoning and Interprofessional Attitudes. J Student-Run Clin. 2017;3(1):1–6.

42. Harman SM, Blankenburg R, Satterfield JM, Monash B, Rennke S, Yuan P, et al. Promoting Shared Decision-Making Behaviors During Inpatient Rounds: A Multimodal Educational Intervention. Acad Med. 2019;94(7):1010–8.

43. Gummesson C, Sundén A, Fex A. Clinical reasoning as a conceptual framework for interprofessional learning : a literature review and a case study. Phys Ther Rev [Internet]. 2018;23(1):29–34. Available from:

44. Schlipalius M, Delany C. Clinical Reasoning for Inter-professional Pregnancy Care: Everyone On The Same Page! [Presentation] AMEE Conference. Basel, Switzerland. 2018.

45. Dogba MJ, Menear M, Stacey D, Brière N, Légaré F. The Evolution of an Interprofessional Shared Decision-Making Research Program : Reflective Case Study of an Emerging Paradigm. Int J Integr Care. 2016;16(3):4, pp. 1–11.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 4615 | views : 3525


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Chaina Hanum, Ardi Findyartini

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Jurnal Pendidikan Kedokteran Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Medical Education) indexed by: