Keterlibatan Orang Tua terhadap Keterampilan Sosial Siswa Berkebutuhan Khusus di Sekolah Dasar Inklusif

Frieda Maryam Mangunsong, Citra Wahyuni
(Submitted 16 January 2018)
(Published 3 December 2018)


This study aims to examine the relationship between parental involvement and social skills of students with SEN in the inclusive elementary primary. It also examines student factors, namely gender, types of disability, and level of impairment that can affect a student’s social skills. Participants were 365 parents of students with Special Educational Need (SEN) in inclusive elementary school. Parental involvement was measured using the Family Involvement Questionnaire. Students' social skills assessed using the Social Skills Improvement System. This research uses the quantitative method and correlational non-experimental design. The results showed that parents' involvement was significantly related to the social skills of students with SEN. It means that the more parents are involved in education, the higher the social skills of the children will have. In regards to demographic variables, only gender of children that can affect children’s social skills.

Abstrak .Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji hubungan antara keterlibatan orang tua dan keterampilan sosial siswa berkebutuhan khusus di sekolah dasar inklusif. Juga menguji faktor siswa seperti jenis kelamin, jenis dan tingkat hambatan yang dialami siswa terhadap keterampilan sosial yang dimilikinya. Partisipan dalam penelitian ini sebanyak 365 orang tua dari siswa berkebutuhan khusus di sekolah dasar inklusif. Keterlibatan orang tua diukur dengan menggunakan Family Involvement Questionnaire. Keterampilan sosial siswa dinilai dengan menggunakan Social Skills Improvement System. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kuantitatif dan desain non-eksperimental korelasional. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa keterlibatan orang tua berhubungan signifikan dengan keterampilan siswa berkebutuhan khusus. Semakin orang tua terlibat dalam proses pendidikan, maka semakin tinggi keterampilan sosial yang dimiliki oleh anak. Berkaitan dengan variabel demografi, hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa hanya jenis kelamin siswa yang dapat memengaruhi keterampilan sosial siswa berkebutuhan khusus.


inclusive education; parental involvement; social skills;

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.22146/jpsi.32341


Aini, Q. (2008). Hubungan antara persepsi dengan interaksi sosial siswa reguler terhadap siswa autis di sekolah inklusi(unpublished undergraduate Thesis). Jakarta: Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah

Alvarez-Valdivia, I. M., Chavez, K. L., Schneider, B. H., Roberts, J. S., Becalli-Puerta, L. E., Perez-Lujan, D., & Sanz-Martinez, Y. A. (2012). Parental involvement and the academic achievement and social functioning of Cuban school children. School Psychology International, 34, 313–329.

Ballard, K., & MacDonald, T. (1998). New Zealand: Inclusive school, inclusive philosophy?. In Booth, T., & Ainscow, M. From them to us: An international study of inclusion on education. London: Routledge.

Beaton, D. E., Bombardier, C., Guillemin, F., & Ferraz, M. B. (2000). Guidelines for the process of cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. SPINE, 25(24), 3186–3191.

Bennett, K. S., & Hay, D. A. (2007). The role of family in the development of social skills in children with physical disabilities. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 54(4), 381–397. doi: 10.1080/10349120701654555.

Booth, T., & Ainscow, M. (2002). Index for inclusion: developing learning and participation in schools. The Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education (CSIE).

Cartledge, G., & Milburn, J. F. (1995) Teaching social skills to children and youth: Innovative approaches (3rd ed.). Massachusetts: Allyn and Bacon.

Chan, D., Ramey, S., Ramey, C., & Schmitt, S. (2000). Modeling intraindividual changes in children’s social skills at home and at school: A multivariate latent growth approach to under­standing between-settings differences in children’s social skill development. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 35(3), 365-396.

Dessemontet, R. S., Bless, G., & Morin, D. (2012). Effects of inclusion on the academic achievement and adaptive behavior of children with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 56(6).

Epley, P. H. (2009). Early school performance for students with disabilities: Examining the impact of early childhood special education, parent involvement, and family quality of life (Unpublished Disserta­tion). Rockhurst University, Kansas.

Fantuzzo, J., Tighe, E., & Childs, S. (2000). Family involvement questionnaire: A multivariate assessment of family participation in early childhood education. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(2), 367–376.

Flem, A. & Keller, C. (2000) Inclusion in Norway: A study of ideology in practice. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 15(2), 188–205.

Frederickson, N., Dunsmuir, S., Lang, J., & Monsen, J. J. (2004). Mainstream–special school inclusion partnerships: pupil, parent and teacher perspectives. International Journal of Inclusive Education INT. J. INCLUSIVE, 8(1), 37–57. doi: 10.1080/1360311032000159456.

Frostad, P., & Pijl, S. J. (2007). Does being friendly help in making friends? The relation between the social position and social skills of pupils with special needs in mainstream education. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 22(1), 15–30.

Gresham, F. M., & Elliot, S. N. (1990). The social skills rating system. Cirle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.

Gresham, F. M., & Elliott, S. N. (2008). Social skills improvement system-rating scales. Minneapolis, MN: Pearson Assessments.

Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebuda­yaan. (2017). Sekolah Inklusi dan Pembangunan SLB Dukung Pendidikan Inklusi. [Online] Tersedia: http://www. (Diakses 11 April 2018).

Koster, M., Pijl, S. J., Nakken, H., & Van Houten, E. (2010). Social participation of students with special needs in regular primary education in the Netherlands. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 57(1), 59–75. doi: 10.1080/ 10349120903537905.

Krull, J., Wilbert, J., & Henneman, T. (2014). The social and emotional situation of first graders with classroom behavior problems and classroom learning difficulties in inclusive classes. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal, 12(2).

Lane, K. L., Carter, E. W., Pierson, M. R., & Glaeser, B. C. (2006). Academic, social, and behavioral characteristics of high school students with emotional disturbance or learning disabilities. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 14, 108–117.

Leyser, Y., & Kirk, R. (2004). Evaluating Inclusion: an examination of parent views

and factors influencing their perspectives. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 51(3), 271–285. doi: 10.1080/1034912042000259233.

Macintosh, K., & Dissanayake, C. (2006). Social skills and problem behaviours in leeschool aged children with high-functioning autism and Asperger’s disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 1065–1076. doi: 10.1007/s10803-006-0139-5.

Mangunsong, F. (2014). Psikologi pendidikan anak berkebutuhan khusus (Jilid 1). Depok: Lembaga Pengembangan Sarana Pengukuran dan Pendidikan Psikologi UI (LPSP3 UI).

Mashburn, A.J., Pianta, R.C., Hamre, B.K., Downer, J.T., Barbarin, O.A., Bryant, D., Burchinal, M., … Early, D. M. (2008). Measures of classroom quality in prekindergarten and children’s development of academic, language, and social skills. Child Development, 79(3), 732-749.

McDonnall, M. C., Cavenaugh, B. S., & Giesen, M. J. (2012). The relationship between parental involvement and mathematics achievement for students with visual impairments. Journal of Special Education, 45(4), 204–215.

McWayne, C. M., Fantuzzo, J. W., & McDermott, P. A. (2004). Preschool competency in context: An investi­gation of the unique contribution of child competencies to early academic success. Developmental Psychology, 40(4), 633–645. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.40.4.633.

Milsom, A., & Glanville, J. L. (2010). Factors mediating the relationship between social skills and academic grades in a sample of students diagnosed with learning disabilities or emotional disturbance. Remedial and Special Education, 31(4), 241–251.

National Associaton of Special Education

Teachers. (2004). Promoting positive social interactions in an inclusion setting for students with learning disabilities. National Association of Special Education Teachers Learning Disabilities. Retrieved from:

Nokali, N., Bachman, H., & Votruba-Drzal, E. (2010). Parent involvement and children’s academic and social development in elementary school. Child Development, 81(3), 988–1005.

Odom, S. L., Buysse, V., & Soukakou, E. (2011). Inclusion for young children with disabilities: A quarter century of research perspectives. Journal of Early Intervention, 23, 344–356.

Peters, S. J. (2007). “Education for all?”: A historical analysis of international inclusive education policy and individuals with disabilities. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 18(2), 98–108.

Powell, D. R., Son, S., File, N., & San, R. R. (2010). Parent–school relationships and children’s academic and social outcomes in public school pre-kindergarten. Journal of School Psychology, 48(4), 269–292.

Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., Curby, T. W., Grimm, K.J., Brock, L. L., & Nathanson, L. (2009). The contribution of children’s self-regulation and classroom quality to children’s adaptive behaviors in the kindergarten class-room. Developmental Psychology, 45, 958–972.

Rotheram-Fuller, E., Kasari, C., Chamberlain, B., & Locke, J. (2010). Social involvement of children with autism spectrum disorders in elementary school classrooms. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 51(11), 1227–1234.

Sanders, M. R., & Morawska, A. (2010). Family background questionnaire. Brisbane: Parenting and Family Supports Centre.

Stright, A. D., Gallagher, K. C., & Kelley, K. (2008). Infant temperament moderates relations between maternal parenting in early childhood and children adjustment in first grade. Child Development, 79(1), 186–200.

Szumski, G., & Karwowski., M. (2014). Psychosocial functioning and school achievement of children with mild intellectual disability in polish special, integrative, and mainstream. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 11(2), 99–108.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Jurnal Psikologi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.