Adaptation of Gratitude Questionnaire-6 (GQ–6) in Indonesian Context

Dhanifa Veda Grimaldy, Handrix Chris Haryanto
(Submitted 11 October 2018)
(Published 20 April 2020)

Abstract


Adaptation of a psychological instrument is essential due to cultural difference and context. This study aimed to adapt the Gratitude Questionnaire-6 (GQ-6) in an Indonesian context. The initial steps included back-to-back translation, focus group discussion, expert judgements, and pilot study. From this procedure, five additional items were added to the original GC-6. The eleven final items were tested to 404 undergraduate students aged 18-24 years-old from several universities in Jakarta. The reliability test, the internal consistency, was examined by the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, while the validity test, construct validity, was examined using exploratory factor analysis (EFA).  The result of analysis showed good validity and reliability (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.789). This study concluded that 11-item gratitude questionnaire consistently measured gratitude in adolescents based on two factors: appreciation to the constant  experience of life and appreciation towards individuals that take part in one’s life.


Keywords


adolescents; gratitude; gratitude questionnaire-6 (GQ-6)

References


Anastasi, A., & Urbina, S. (1997). Tes psikologi (R. H. Imam, Trans.). Jakarta: Prenhallindo.

Angelia, Y. (2016). Hubungan antara gratitude dengan subjetive well-being pada kelompok pengajian di Masjid Agung Sunda Kelapa. (Unpublished bachelor's thesis). Universitas Mercubuana, Jakarta.

Azwar, S. (1995). Sikap manusia teori dan pengukurannya. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Azwar, S. (1999). Penyusunan skala psikologi. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Azwar, S. (2012). Reliabilitas dan validitas. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Beaton, D. E., Bombardier, C., Guillemin, F., & Ferraz, M. B. (2000). Guidelines for the process of cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. Spine, 25(24), 3186–3191. doi: 10.1097/00007632-200012150-00014

Chen, L. H., Chen, M. Y., Kee, Y. H., & Tsai, Y. M. (2009). Validation of the gratitude questionnaire (GQ) in Taiwanese undergraduate students. Journal of Happiness Studies, 10(6), 655–664. doi: 10.1007/s10902-008-9112-7

Emmons, R. A., & McCullough, M. E. (2003). Counting blessings versus burdens: An experimental investi­gation of gratitude and subjective well-being in daily life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(2), 377–389. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.84.2.377

Froh, J. J., Bono, G., & Emmons, R. (2010). Being grateful is beyond good manners: Gratitude and motivation to contribute to society among early adolescents. Motivation and Emotion, 34(2), 144–157. doi: 10.1007/s11031-010-9163-z

Froh, J. J., Fan, J., Emmons, R. A., Bono, G., Huebner, E. S., & Watkins, P. (2011). Measuring gratitude in youth: Assessing the psychometric properties of adult gratitude scales in children and adolescents. Psychological Assessment, 23(2), 311–324. doi: 10.1037/a0021590

Froh, J. J., Yurkewicz, C., & Kashdan, T. B. (2009). Gratitude and subjective well-being in early adolescence: Examining gender differences. Journal of Adolescence, 32(3), 633–650. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2008.06.006

Gudmundsson, E. (2009). Guidelines for translating and adapting psychological instruments. Nordic Psychology, 61(2), 29–45. doi: 10.1027/1901-2276.61.2.29

Hafiz, M. (2018). Peran kebersyukuran terhadap work engagement pada pegawai Aparatur Sipil Negara (ASN) di Kabupaten Sintang Provinsi Kalimantan Barat. (Unpublished bachelor's thesis). Faculty of Psychology and Social Cultural Sciences, Universitas Islam Indonesia, Yogyakarta.

Kaplan, R. M., & Saccuzzo, D. P. (2005). Psychological testing: Principles, applications, and issues (6th ed.). USA: Thomson Wadsworth.

Lambert, N. M., Graham, S. M., Fincham, F. D., & Stillman, T. F. (2009). A changed perspective: How gratitude can affect sense of coherence through positive reframing. Journal of Positive Psychology, 4(6), 461–470. doi: 10.1080/17439760903157182

Langer, Á. I., Ulloa, V. G., Aguilar-Parra, J. M., Araya-Véliz, C., & Brito, G. (2016). Validation of a Spanish translation of the Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-6) with a Chilean sample of adults and high schoolers. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 14(1), 1–9. doi: 10.1186/s12955-016-0450-6

McCullough, M. E., Emmons, R. A., & Tsang, J. A. (2002). The grateful disposition: A conceptual and empirical topography. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(1), 112–127. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.82.1.112

McCullough, M. E., Emmons, R. A., & Tsang, J. A. (2003). The Assessment of Gratitude. In C. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Positive psychological assessment: A handbook of models of measures. Washington, DC: American Psycho­logical Association.

Morgan, B., Gulliford, L., & Kristjánsson, K. (2014). Gratitude in the UK: A new prototype analysis and a cross-cultural comparison. Journal of Positive Psychology, 9(4), 281–294. doi: 10.1080/17439760.2014.898321

Naito, T., & Washizu, N. (2015). Note on cultural universals and variations of gratitude from an East Asian point of view.

 

 

International Journal of Behavioral Science, 10(2), 1–8.

Neto, F. (2007). Forgiveness, personality and gratitude. Personality and Individual Differences, 43(8), 2313–2323. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2007.07.010

Oriza, I. I. D., & Menaldi, A. (2010). Validasi skala bersyukur pada orang Indonesia. Proceeding Konferensi Nasional II Ikatan Psikologi Klinis – Himpsi: Intervensi Psikologis untuk Meningkatkan Kualitas Hidup Masyarakat Indonesia. Yogyakarta: Ikatan Psikologi Klinis – Himpsi.

Osterlind, S. J. (2010). Modern measurement theory, principle, and applications of mental appraisal (2nd ed.). United States of America: Pearson Education.

Sarwono, S. W. (2007). Psikologi remaja. Jakarta: Raja Grafindo Persada.

Schimmel, S. (2004). Gratitude in Judaism. In R. A. Emmons & M. E. McCullough (Eds.), Series in affective science. The psychology of gratitude. USA: Oxford University Press.

Suryabrata, S. (1999). Pengembangan alat ukur psikologis. Jakarta: Directorate General of Higher Education, Ministry of Education and Culture Republic of Indonesia.

Tsang, J. A. (2006). Gratitude and prosocial behaviour: An experimental test of gratitude. Cognition and Emotion, 20(1), 138–148. doi: 10.1080/02699930500172341

Wang, D., Wang, Y. C., & Tudge, J. R. H. (2015). Expressions of gratitude in children and adolescents: Insights from China and the United States. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 46(8), 1039–1058. doi: 10.1177/0022022115594140

 

Yüksel, A., & Oğuz Duran, N. (2012). Turkish adaptation of the gratitude questionnaire. Egitim Arastirmaları-Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 46(46), 199–216.


Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.22146/jpsi.39608

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2020 Jurnal Psikologi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.