The Role of Self-compassion to Depression in Teenagers Mediated by Emotion Regulation
Adolescence is a stage of development in life that is full of emotional turmoil, conflict, and stress, of which often lead to teenagers’ vulnerability to depression symptoms. A potential serious case if the depression symptoms are not treated well includes risk of suicidal ideation and suicide behaviour. This research aims to investigate and test the role of self-compassion to depression symptoms in teenagers mediated by emotion regulation-cognitive reappraisal. Participants in this research were 627 teenagers (N=627) with an age range of 15-18 years old, including 508 girls (81%) and 119 boys (19%). Mediation analysis using Process by Andrew F. Hayes, model 4, shows that emotion regulation —cognitive reappraisal (p=0.001; p<0.05) mediates the role of self-compassion to depression symptoms in teenagers. Emotion regulation—cognitive reappraisal serves as a partial mediator to the role of self-compassion to depression symptoms. Teenagers with self-compassion treat themselves positively by realizing and accepting negative emotions that leads to reduction of these negative emotions. It improves the capability of cognitive reappraisal, that brings new interpretation towards a more positive view for reducing depression symptoms.
Azwar, S. 2012. Reliabilitas dan validitas. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar
Aldao, A., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Schweizer, S. (2010). Emotion- regulation strategies across psychopathology: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(2), 217–237.DOI: 10.1016/j.cpr.2009.11.004.
American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., Text Revision). Washington, DC: Author.
Ausie, R. K., & Poerwandari, K. (2021). The Role of loneliness and self-compassion as predictors of depressive symptoms in college students. Jurnal Psikologi 20(2), 178-186
Benjamin G. S., Jonathan P. S., Brae, A.M., Lyn, Y.A., & Lauren B.A. (2018). Cognitive reappraisal attenuates the association between depressive symptoms and emotional response to stress during adolescence. Cognition and Emotion, 1(1), 1-12 DOI: 10.1080/02699931.2018.146214.
Bennett, D. S., Ambrosini, P. J., Kudes, D., Metz, C., & Rabinovich, H. (2005). Gender differences in adolescent depression: Do symptoms differ for boys and girls? Journal of Affective Disorders, 89(1-3), 35–44. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2005.05.020
Berking, M., & Whitley, B. (2014). Affect regulation training: A practitioners’ manual. New York: Springer.
Beveren,ML.V., Goossens, L., Volkaert, B., Grassmann, C., Wante,L., Vandeweghe,L., Verbeken, S., & Braet, C. (2019). How do I feel right now? Emotional awareness, emotion regulation, and depressive symptoms in youth. European Child & Adolescent, 28, 389-398.
Bluth, K. L., Campo, R. A., Futch, W. S., & Gaylord, S. A. (2017). Age and gender differences in the associations of self-compassion and emotional well-being in a large adolescent sample. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46, 840-853. DOI:10.1007/s10964-016-0567-2
Casey, BJ., Rebecca, M., Levita, L., Libby V, Pattwell SS, Ruberry EJ, Soliman F, Somerville LH (2010). The storm and stress of adolescence: Insights from human imaging and mouse genetics. Dev Psychobiol, 52(3), 225-235.
Castillo, L. G., Perez, F. V., Castillo, R., & Ghosheh, M. R. (2010). Construction and initial validation of the Marianismo Beliefs Scale. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 23, 163–175.
Chrisler, J., C. & McCreary, D., R. (2010). Handbook of Gender Research in Psychology: Gender, emotion, and socialization. Canada: Springer.
Coffey, J. K., & Warren, M. T. (2020). Comparing adolescent positive affect and self-esteem as precursors to adult self-esteem and life satisfaction. Motivational and Emotion, 1(1), 1-12DOI: 10.1007/s11031-020-09825-7
Cournoyer, R. J., & Mahalik, J. R. (1995). Cross-sectional study of gender role conflict examining college-aged and middle aged men. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 42, 11–19.
Clayborne, Z., M., Varin, M., Colman, I. (2019). Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis: Adolescent Depression and Long-Term Psychosocial Outcomes. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 58(1), 72-29.
Cracco E, Goossens L, Braet C (2017) Emotion regulation across childhood and adolescence: evidence for a maladaptive shift in adolescence. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 26, 1–13.
DeVore, R. (2013). Analysis of gender differences in self-statements and mood disorders. McNair Scholars Research Journal, 9(7), 1-12.
Diedrich, A., Burger, J., Kirchner, M., & Berking, M. (2017). Adaptive emotion regulation mediates the relationship between self-compassion and depression in individuals with unipolar depression. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 90, 247–263. DOI: 10.1111/papt.12107
Diedrich, A., Grant, M., Hofmann, S. G., Hiller, W., dan Berking, M. (2014). Self- compassion As An Emotion Regulation Strategy in Major Depressive Disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 58, 43–51.
Dochnal, R., Vetro, A., & Kiss, E. (2019). Emotion regulation among adolescents with pediatric depression as a function of anxiety comorbidity. Frontiers in Psychiatry. 10(722),1-7DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00722
Estefan, G. & Wijaya, D.,Y. (2014). Gambaran Proses regulasi Emosi pada Pelaku Self Injury [The Illustration of Emotion Regulation Process in Individuals Who Engage with Self-Injury] Jurnal Psikologi Esa Unggul, 12(1), 26-33.
Eaton, W. W., Smith, C., Ybarra, M., Muntaner, C., & Tien, A. (2004). Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: Review and Revision (CESD and CESD-R). In M. E. Maruish (Ed.), The use of psychological testing for treatment planning and outcomes assessment: Instruments for adults. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
Ferrari, M., Yap, K., Scott, N., Einstein, D. A., & Ciarrochi, J. (2018). Self-compassion moderates the perfectionism and depression link in both adolescence and adulthood. PLoS One, 13(2), 1–19. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0192022.
Finlay-Jones, A. L. (2017). The relevance of self-compassion as an intervention target in mood and anxiety disorders: A narrative review based on an emotion regulation framework. Clinical Psychologist, 21(2), 90–103. DOI: 10.1111/cp.12131.
Fiorilli C, Capitello,T., Barni, D., Buonomo,I & Gentile, S. (2018) Predicting adolescent depression: The interrelated roles of self-esteem and interpersonal stressors. Front. Psychol, 10(565), 1-18. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00565
Fombonne, E., Wostear, G., Cooper, V., Harrington, R., & Rutter, M. (2001). The Maudsley long-term follow-up of child and adolescent depression. Br J Psychiatry. 1(1), 218-223.
Goldberg, W. A., Kelly, E., Matthews, N. L., Kang, H., Li, W., & Sumaroka, M. (2012). The more things change, the more they stay the same: Gender, culture, and college students’ views about work and family. Journal of Social Issues, 68, 814–837.
Gladstone, T., R., G., Beardslee, W., R., O’Connor, E., E. (2011). The Prevention of Adolescent Depression. Psychiatr Clin North Am, 34(1), 35–52. DOI:10.1016/j.psc.2010.11.015.
Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well- being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(2), 348– 362. DOI:10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1248.
Gratz, K. L., dan Roemer, L. (2004). Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation and dysregulation: Development, Factor Structure, and Initial Validation of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 26, 41–54.
Habermas, T., & Reese, E. (2015). Getting a life takes time: The development of the life story in adolescence, its precursors and consequences. Human Development, 58 (1), 172-201. DOI:10.1159/000437245.
Hayes, A.F. (2013). Introduction to Mediation, Moderation, and Conditional Process Analysis: A Regression-Based Approach. New York, NY: Guilford Press
Hankin BL, Gibb BE, Abela JRZ, Flory K. Selective attention to affective stimuli and clinical depression among youths: role of anxiety and specificity of emotion. (2010). J Abnorm Psychol, 119(3): 491–501. DOI:10.1037/a0019609.
Henry, L, M., Steele, E.H., Watson, K.H., (2019). Stress exposure and maternal depression as risk factors for symptoms of anxiety and depression in Adolescents. 51, 572-584. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. DOI:10.1007/s10578-019-00940-2
Inwood, E., & Ferrari, M. (2018). Mechanisms of change in the relationship between self-Compassion, emotion regulation, and mental health: A Systematic Review. Applied Psychology ,1(1),1-21. DOI:10.1111/aphw.12127.
Iskender, M. (2009). The relationship between self-compassion, self-efficacy, and control belief about learning in Turkish university students. Social Behavior and Personality, 37, 711–720.
Joiner, T. E. (2001). Defensiveness predicts peer rejection of depressed children. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39, 929-938.
Jonathan, A.(2021). Pengaruh self-compassion terhadap kecenderungan depresi pada mahasiswa di kota Surabaya.Thesis. Fakultas Psikologi Universitas Katolik Widya Mandala Surabaya.
Kehn, A., & Ruthig, J. C. (2013). Perceptions of gender discrimination across six decades: The moderating roles of gender and age. Sex Roles, 69, 289–296.
Keel, C., & Pidgeon, A. M. (2017). Mediating role of self-compassion, emotional regulation on the relationship between, and psychological distress. Journal of Basic and Applied Research, 3(3), 107-113.
Kesehatan Kementerian RI. (2018). Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Basic Health Research). Jakarta: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Kementerian RI.
Kenny, R., Dooley, B., & Fitzgerald, A. (2013). Interpersonal relationships and emotional distress in adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 36(2), 351- 360.
Kudinova, A. Y., James, K. & Gibb, B. E. (2018). Cognitive reappraisal and depression in children with a parent history of depression. J Abnorm Child Psychol,46(2), 849-856 DOI: 10.1007/s10802-017-0333-2.
Krieger, T., Berger, T., & Holtforth, M. (2016). The relationship of self- compassion and depression: Cross-lagged panel analyses in depressed patients after outpatient therapy. Journal of Affective Disorders, 202, 39–45. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2016.05.032.
Laible, D., Carlo, G., Panfile, T., Eye, J., & Parker, J. (2010). Negative emotionality and emotion regulation: A person- centered approach to predicting socioemotional adjusmente in young adolescents. Journal of Research in Personality,44, 621-629.
Lathren, C., Bluth, K., & Park, J. (2019). Adolescent self-compassion moderates the relationship between perceived stress and internalizing symptoms. Personality and Individuall Differences, 143(1), 36-41
Leary, M. R., Tate, E. B., Adam, C. E., Allen, A. B., & Hancock, J. (2007). Self- compassion and reactions to unpleasant self-relevant effents: the implications of treating oneself kindly. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(5), 887-904
Larsen, J. K., Vermulst, A. A., Geenen, R., Middendrorp, H., English, T., Gross, J. J., Ha, T., Evers,C., & Engels, R. C. M. E. (2013). Emotion regulation in adolescence: A prospective study of expressive suppression and depressive Symptoms. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 33(2), 184-200. DOI: 0.1177/0272431611432712
Larson, R., & Richards, M. H. (1991). Daily companionship in late childhood and early adolescence: Changing developmental contexts. Child Development, 62, 284-300.
Maccoby, E., E. (2002). Gender and group process: a developmental perspective. Current Direction ini Psychological Science, 11(2), 54-58.
Maslita, V. Q., Saraswati, P., & Hijrianti, U. R. (2021). Pengaruh regulasi emosi kognitif terhadap depresi pada mahasiswa tingkat akhir dimasa pandemi covid-19. Cognicia, 9(2), 76–84. https://doi.org/10.22219/cognicia.v9i2.18023
Modecki, K. L., Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J., & Guerra, N. (2017). Emotion regulation, coping, and decision making: Three linked skills for preventing externalizing problem in adolescence. Child Development, 88(2), 1-10
Marsh, I. C., Chan, S. Y., & MacBeth, A. (2017). Self-compassion and psychological distress in adolescents a meta-analysis. Mindfulness. 9, 1011-1027. DOI: 10.1007/ s12671-017-0850-7.
MacBeth, A., & Gumley, A. (2012). Exploring compassion: a meta-analysis of the association between self-compassion and psychopathology. Clinical Psychology Review, 32, 1-12.<p style="line-height: 1.2; text-indent: -28.35pt; text-align: j
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2022 Jurnal Psikologi
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.