Strategies and Challenges for Women Protection against Violence: A Case Study of Jakarta and Cairo

https://doi.org/10.22146/jh.58912

Nurul Adhha(1*), Asep Saepudin Jahar(2), Kamarusdiana Kamarusdiana(3), Imam Subchi(4)

(1) Institut Teknologi Sumatera
(2) Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta
(3) Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta
(4) Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


This study aims at illustrating the weakness of women protection against violence in various levels in Indonesia and Cairo. Both countries share common failure in protecting women due to the incapability poor performance of police and local governments. In addition, cultural values and religious understanding have played a part in narrowing the concern to the protection. Basically, Indonesia has already set some legal instruments to protect women against any violence through the gender-based laws and policies. In practice, however, such laws and policies have faced several complexities in regards to the nature of institution, security role and social values among society. Violence against women is generally regarded as moral and norm violations instead of criminal acts. In some respects, the weakness of law enforcement indicates the ineffectiveness of the existing laws and policies. Similarly, Egypt also suffers from the backwardness of women protection against violence. In fact, legal reform for women protection in this country was made in 2014 through special constitution. Such constitution is the first law set to promote the status and role of women in both private and public affairs. In addition, it also aims at ensuring equal rights and obligations in women protection which is free from discrimination and empowering as well as caring for women and girls victims at various stages of case handling system. Referring to the data and actual documents collected during the research, this study has found a result stating women protection has faced various aspects of social and political interests. To that end, it necessary to strengthen the role of civil society in controlling the government and making people aware of gender equality in particular and human rights in general.

Keywords


Egypt; law; policy; protection; women protection against violence

Full Text:

PDF


References

Abozaid, Ahmed M. (2020). Counterterrorism strategy and human rights in Egypt after the Arab uprising: A critical appraisal. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 101385. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2020.101385

Adhha, Nurul (2019). Women Curative Protection on the Violence Victims: The Relevance of Maqasid al Shari’ah al-Islamiyyah on the Justice Access. Al-Itqan: Journal of Islamic Science and Comparative Studies, 3(2), 125-158. Retrieved from https://journals.iium.edu.my/al-itqan/index.php/al-itqan/article/view/121

Biagini, Erika (2017). The Egyptian Muslim sisterhood between violence, activism and leadership. Mediterranean Politics, 22(1), 35-53. https://doi.org/10.1080/13629395.2016.1230943

Dalal, Koustuv, Stephen Lawoko, and Bjarne Jansson (2010). Women’s attitudes towards discontinuation of female genital mutilation in Egypt. Journal of Injury and Violence Research, 2(1), 41-47. DOI: 10.5249/jivr.v2i1.33

Douki, Saida, et al. (2003). Violence against women in Arab and Islamic countries. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 6(3), 165-171. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00737-003-0170-x

Elghossain, Tatiana, et al. (2019). Prevalence of intimate partner violence against women in the Arab world: a systematic review. BMC International Health and Human Rights, 19(1), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12914-019-0215-5

Ellsberg, Mary, et al. (2015). Prevention of violence against women and girls: what does the evidence say? The Lancet, 385(9977), 1555-1566. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/ S0140-6736(14)61703-7

El-Nimr, Nessrin Ahmed, Salma Gouda, and Iman Wahdan. (2020). Violence against Women in a Slum Area in Helwan, Cairo, Egypt: A Community Based Survey. Journal of Research in Health Sciences, 20(1), 1-5. DOI: 10.34172/jrhs.2020.01

Fahmy, Khaled (1999). The anatomy of justice: forensic medicine and criminal law in nineteenth-century Egypt. Islamic Law and Society, 6(2), 224-271. https://doi.org/10.1163/1568519991208682

García-Moreno, Claudia, et al. (2015). Addressing violence against women: a call to action. The Lancet, 385(9978), 1685-1695. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61830-4

Guimei, Maaly, Faten EzEldin Fikry, and Ola Mamdouh Abd Elwahed Esheiba (2012). Patterns of violence against women in three communities in Alexandria, Egypt. MCN: The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing, 37(5), 331-338. DOI: 10.1097/NMC.0b013e31825c99d8

Hoor-Ul-Ain, Syeda (2020). Public sexual harassment mayhem on public transport in megacities-Karachi and London: A comparative review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 101420. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2020.101420

Htun, Mala, and Francesca R. Jensenius (2020). Fighting Violence Against Women: Laws, Norms & Challenges Ahead. Daedalus, 149(1), 144-159. https://doi.org/10.1162/daed_a_01779

Jamilah, Maryam, and Yon Machmudi (2019). Political Gender Inequality in Egypt after the Arab Spring (2011–2013). 2nd International Conference on Strategic and Global Studies (ICSGS 2018). Atlantis Press, 186-192.

Kato, Miwa (2017). Women of Egypt. Cairo Review of Global Affairs, 10, 42-51. https://cdn.thecairoreview.com/wpcontent/uploads/2017/01/cr24-kato.pdf

Khodary, Yasmin, and Nehal Hamdy (2019). FGM in Egypt between socio-cultural barriers and lack of political will. Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research, 252-262. DOI: 10.1108/JACPR-03-2019-0406

Mansour, Fatma, and Hanan Abdel Mohdy (2018). Intimate Partner Violence among Women with Female Infertility. American Journal of Nursing, 6(5), 309-316. DOI:10.12691/ajnr-6-5-13

McCleary-Sills, Jennifer, et al. (2016). Stigma, shame and women’s limited agency in help-seeking for intimate partner violence. Global Public Health, 11(1-2), 224-235. https://doi.org/10.1080/17441692.2015.1047391

Michau, Lori, et al. (2015). Prevention of violence against women and girls: lessons from practice. The Lancet, 385(9978), 1672-168. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61797-9

Novisky, Meghan A., and Robert L. Peralta (2015). When women tell: Intimate partner violence and the factors related to police notification. Violence against Women, 21(1), 65-86. DOI: 10.1177/1077801214564078

Vyas, Seema (2017). Marital violence and sexually transmitted infections among women in post-revolution Egypt. Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare, 13, 68-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.srhc.2017.06.002

Wismayanti, Yanuar Farida, et al. (2019). Child sexual abuse in Indonesia: A systematic review of literature, law and policy. Child Abuse & Neglect, 95, 104034. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2019.104034

Books
Adhha, Nurul (2020). Pemulihan Perempuan Korban Kekerasan, Analisis Perspektif Hukum Positif dan Hukum Islam. Yogyakarta: KBM Indonesia.

Afkhami, Mahnaz, Yakın Ertürk, and Ann Elizabeth Mayer (2019). Feminist advocacy, family law and violence against women: international perspectives. Routledge; International Development Research Centre,.https://www.idrc.ca/sites/default/files/sp/Images/IDRC%20Books/idl-57272.pdf

Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT) (2017). Country Information Report Egypt, 19 May 2017. https://dfat.gov.au/about-us/publications/Documents/countryinformation-report-egypt.pdf

Hassan, F. (2009). Egypt Violence Against Women Study: A Summary of Findings. Egypt: Secretary General National Council for Women Cairo.

Lawrence M. Friedman (1984). American Law: An Introduction. New York: W.E. Norton & Company.

National Council for Women (2015). The National Startegy for Combating Violence Against Women. Cairo: National Council for Women.

Phillips, Janet, et al. (2015). Domestic violence: Issues and policy challenges. Australia: Department of Parliamentary Services-Parliamentary Library.

Sudikno Mertokusumo (1999). Mengenal Hukum Sebuah Pengantar. Yogyakarta: Liberty.

Supriyadi Widodo Eddyono, dkk. (2015). Envisioning Indonesian Criminal Code Reform: Challenges in Reforming Criminal System and Protecting Civil Liberties. Jakarta: Institute for Criminal Justice Reform (ICJR).

The National Commission on Violence against Women (2017). Membangun Akses ke Keadilan bagi Perempuan Korban Kekerasan. Jakarta: Komnas Perempuan.

The National Commission on Violence against Women (2015). Kekerasan Terhadap Perempuan: Negara Segera Putus Impunitas Pelaku. CETAHU, Republic of Indonesia.

The National Commission on Violence against Women (2016). Kekerasan Terhadap Perempuan Meluas: Negara Urgen Hadir Hentikan Kekerasan Terhadap Perempuan di Ranah Domestik, Komunitas dan Negara. CETAHU, Republic of Indonesia.

The National Commission on Violence against Women (2017). Dari Gang Rape hingga Femicide, Alarm bagi Negara untuk Bertindak Tepat. CETAHU, Republic of Indonesia.

The National Commission on Violence against Women (2018). Tergerusnya Ruang Aman Perempuan dalam Pusaran Politik Populisme. CETAHU, Republic of Indonesia.

The National Commission on Violence against Women (2019). Korban bersuara, Data Berbicara Sahkan RUU Penghapusan Kekerasan Seksual Sebagai Wujud Komitmen Negara. CETAHU, Republic of Indonesia.

The National Commission on Violence against Women (2020). Kekerasan Meningkat Kebijakan Penghapusan Kekerasan Seksual Untuk Membangun Ruang Aman Bagi Perempuan dan Anak Perempuan. CETAHU, Republic of Indonesia.

UK Home Office (2019). Country Policy and Information Note Egypt: Women, Version 2.0, June 2019, UK: UK Home Office, accessed on 2019.https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/810875/Egypt_-_Women_-_CPIN_-_v2.0__June_2019__external.pdf.

United Nation Beirut (2017). Status of Arab Women Report 2017 Violence Against Women: What is at Stake? Beirut: United Nation.

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (2018). Egypt Gender Justice and The Law: Assessment of laws affecting gender equality and protection against gender-based violence. New York: UN.
United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) (2016). Against Wind and Tides: A Review of the Status of Women and Gender Equality in the Arab Region 20 Years after the Adoption of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action. New York: United Nations.

Zarizana (translate edition) (2015). Kerangka Uji Cermat Tuntas Kewajiban Negara dalam Penghapusan Kekerasan terhadap Perempuan. Jakarta: The National Commission on Violence against Women.

Laws
Egypt’s Constitution of 2014, accessed on,http://www.sis.gov.eg/Newvr/Dustor-en001.pdf.
Regulation of the Head of the National Police of the Republic of Indonesia Number 10 of 2007 concerning the Organization and Work Procedure of the Women and Children Service Unit (Unit PPA) within the State Police of the Republic of Indonesia.

Magazines
Adel, A. (30 April 2015). Combating Violence against Women Strategy. Al-Masshad. Accessed on http://al-mashhad.com/News/ .1011819.aspx/

مقاالت-خاصة/إستراتيجية-مكافحة-العنف-ضد-المرأة

Cairo Institute for Human Rights Studies (4 April 2017). Circles of hell from Tahrir to Zagazig…? Accessed on https://cihrs.org/egypt-circles-of-hell-from-tahrir-to-zagazig-when-will-the-normalization-of-sexual-violence-against-women-end/?lang=en.

Thomson Reuters Foundation. The world’s most dangerous megacities for women 2017. Accessed on http://poll2017.trust.org/.

Thesis/Dissertation
Rateb, Maha Said (2017). Violence against women in Egypt: Public policies and services. Thesis. The American University in Cairo.

Smith, Christine E (2015). State Violence, Mobility and Everyday Life in Cairo, Egypt. Thesis and Dissertation. Geography of University of Kentucky, accessed on https://uknowledge.uky.edu/geography_etds/34

Song, Anne (2018). Political Revolutions and Women’s Progress: Why the Egyptian Arab Spring Failed to Deliver on the Promises of Women’s Rights. Masters Thesis. The University of San Francisco.

Websites
Indonesian Working Group on the Advocacy Against Torture (2008). Shadow Report Prepared for the UN Committee against Torture in connection to its review of Indonesia’s Second Periodic Report under the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. Association for the Prevention of Torture website, May http://www.apt.ch/region/asiapacific/ShadowReportWGAT.pdf – accessed on 19 February 2019 – Attachment 9.



DOI: https://doi.org/10.22146/jh.58912

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 1976 | views : 1790

Refbacks





Copyright (c) 2021 Humaniora

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


ISSN 2302-9269 (online); ISSN 0852-0801 (print)
Creative Commons License Copyright © 2022 Humaniora. This website and its contents are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License